Pimelodus gracilis, Val. in D'Orb. Voy. dans l'Amer. Mérid., Atl. Ichth ., Pl. 2, fig. 5.
Pimelodus gracilis, Cuv. et Val., Hist. des Poiss., tom. xv, p. 134.

Form. Of a slender elongated form, the body compressed behind the dorsal. Greatest depth contained about seven and a half times in the entire length: thickness at the commencement of the dorsal a little less than the depth. Head, measured to the gill-opening, rather more than one-sixth of the entire length: its breadth two-thirds of its own length. Helmet smooth, and not very conspicuous, though with its whole surface finely wrinkled: its breadth behind the eyes rather more than one-third of its length, measuring this last from the end of the snout to the further extremity of the interparietal process. The solution of continuity extends back nearly to the base of the process just mentioned, which last is narrow and lanceolate, three times as long as broad at its base, but not reaching to the buckler, or triangular plate in front of the dorsal, by one-third of its own length. The buckler itself is not very large, but sufficiently obvious.

Profile sloping gradually downwards in nearly a straight line from the beginning of the dorsal to the end of the snout: this last depressed and rounded horizontally in the form of a semicircle. Mouth wide, but very little cleft, the commissure not reaching half way to the eye. Upper jaw projecting a very little beyond the lower. In each a band of very fine velutine teeth; but none on the vomer or palatines. Tongue smooth, and fastened down all round. Six barbules; the maxillary pair very long, reaching to the commencement of the anal fin; of the submandibular pairs, the exterior reach one-third beyond the insertion of the pectorals; the interior are only half the length of the exterior. Eyes round, of moderate size, their diameter four and a half times in the length of the head, situate in about the middle of the length: distance from one to the other one diameter and a quarter. Lateral line nearly straight throughout its course, dividing the body longitudinally into two nearly equal portions.

Pectorals not quite equalling the length of the head, and a little less than one-sixth of the entire length: the spine very little shorter than the soft rays, very strong, with sharp teeth on its inner edge, but the outer edge only granulated, or with a few slight serratures towards the extremity. The humeral bone seen above the pectoral projects backwards in the form of a spinous lamina, but does not appear through the skin; it equals half the length of the pectoral itself. The dorsal commences at one-fourth of the entire length, and is of a somewhat rectangular form, the soft rays not decreasing much backwards: its length equals four-fifths of the depth of the body, and two-thirds of its own height. The spine is not so strong as that of the pectoral, and with only a few small serratures on the outer edge near the tip. The space between the dorsal and the; adipose a little exceeds the length of the former.

The adipose itself is twice the length of that fin; very low at first, but gradually rising, until, before its termination, it becomes equal to between one-half and one-third of the depth. The vent is in the middle of the entire length, caudal excluded. Anal short, and just beneath the middle of the adipose, there being about one-fourth of this last fin in advance of it as well as behind it: the first four rays simple, but apparently all articulated, the first two or three very minute and not easily observed. Caudal forked for two-thirds of its length: the upper lobe a little longer than the lower, and contained five and a half times in the entire length. Ventrals immediately beneath the last ray of the dorsal; a little shorter than the pectorals, and not reaching to the anal by half their own length.

D. 1/6; A. 14 or 15; C. 17, etc.; P. 1/9; V. 6

Length 5 inches 2 lines

Colour. (In spirits.) Brownish, inclining to silvery in some places: a dusky fascia formed of dots along the lateral line. Dorsal rather dusky at the base, and with the upper portion also dusky between the rays: a dusky spot on the anterior part of the adipose.

Habitat, Rio de Janeiro.

This species was taken by Mr. Darwin in a running brook at Rio de Janeiro. It approaches on the whole so nearly the P. gracilis of D'Orbigny , that I can hardly suppose it to be distinct. Yet there are some slight differences observable in this specimen. It has more anal rays; the adipose appears shorter; and the upper lobe of the caudal is not so prolonged, though possibly it may be worn down. Also D'Orbigny's figure appears to want the dusky stains on the dorsal and adipose fins. If it be not that species it must be new, as there is none other described by Cuvier and Valenciennes with which it will assimilate better.



P. corpore parum elongato, altitudine quintam partem longitudinis aequante: galeâ laevi, incospicuâ, processu interparietali haud clypeum parvum praedorsalem attingente: poris paucis buccalibus amplis, serie obliquâ dispositis: maxillis aequalibus: cirris sex; maxillaribus haud analem attingentibus: lineâ laterali primum deflexâ, deinde rectâ: pinnis dorsali et anali brevibus; adiposâ dorsali haud duplo longiore: caudali profundč bifurcâ, lobis aequalibus: spinâ pectorali margine interno fortiter dentato

D. 1/7; A. 13 vel 14; C. 17, etc.; P. 1/8; V. 6

Long. unc. 3 lin. 6

Form. In some respects resembling the last species, but the body much less elongated, the depth and thickness remaining the same. The depth is about one-fifth of the entire length; the head rather more than one-fifth. The helmet is scarcely so much wrinkled, and the interparietal process not so long, reaching only half-way to the buckler, which lasts is smaller and less obvious. The solution of continuity of the bones of the cranium appears to extend back in the form of a narrow fissure nearly to the base of the interparietal process, but is not very obvious, except between the eyes, where it opens into a sort of elongated ellipse. There are eight or nine pores on the top of the head, rather behind the eyes, so arranged as to form nearly a complete circle. There is also a conspicuous row of three or four large oval pores on the cheek, at the anterior part of the opercle, descending obliquely forwards: other smaller ones may be seen scattered about different parts of the head. The jaws are equal: the teeth as in the last species, excepting that a roughness can be distinctly felt upon the vomer beneath the skin, though there are no teeth on that part which appear through it. The maxillary pair of barbules reach to a point midway between the insertion of the ventrals and the commencement of the anal: of the submandibular pairs, the exterior do not reach beyond the insertion of the pectorals; the interior are two-thirds the length of these. Eyes elliptical, the longitudinal diameter about one-fifth the length of the head; situate nearer the end of the snout than the posterior part of the opercle; the interval between them nearly two diameters. The lateral line slopes downward till opposite the fourth soft ray of the dorsal, then passes off straight along the middle of the caudal.

The pectorals are contained about five-and-a-half times in the entire length. The spine is similar to that of the last species; but the humeral bone is shorter, and scarcely one-third of the pectoral itself. The dorsal is similar; and the space between it and the adipose is the same; but the adipose itself, though of the same form, is not so long, from the body being less elongated; it is not more than half as long again as the dorsal. Anal similar, but the adipose not advancing so much beyond it. Caudal and ventrals similar; but the former with the lobes equal.

Colour. (In spirits.) On the whole similar to, but darker than that of the last species. There is some appearance of a fascia along the lateral line. The upper part of the dorsal, and also of the anal, is dusky, but there is no spot on the adipose. Pectorals and ventrals dusky.

A second specimen differs from the above in no respect, except in being smaller, measuring two inches and a quarter in length, and in having one ray more in the anal.

Habitat, Rio de Janeiro?

The number annexed to this species has been lost, but there is reason for believing that Mr. Darwin took i t with the last at Rio de Janeiro. I cannot identify it with any of those described by Cuvier and Valenciennes in the Histoire des Poissons . It affords another instance of the indefiniteness of the character derived from the presence or absence of vomerine teeth; since a band of such teeth, which are considered by Valenciennes as absent in this genus, can be distinctly felt and made obvious by removing the skin of the palate, though they do not appear externally. This is not the case with the species last described, to which nevertheless, the present one approaches so closely in general character, that they never could be widely separated. Except for the greater elongation of the body in the P. gracilis , I should have been almost inclined to consider them as sexes of the same species.



C. capite compresso laevi: ore parvo, cirris maxillaribus ad utrumque angulum duobus, haud ultrâ oculos pertingentibus; labro inferiore reflexo, et in duos cirros breves membranaceous producto: spinâ pectorali compressâ, forti, margine interno leviter dentato, externo laevi, quintam partem totius longitudinis aequanti: caudali bifurcâ, lobis aequalibus acuminatis

D. 1/7-1; A. 6; C. 14, etc.; P. 1/7; V. 6

Long. unc. 1. lin. 10

Form. General form resembling that of the C. punctatus . Depth, at the commencement of the dorsal, one-third of the length, excluding caudal: thickness at the pectorals three-fourths of the depth. Head slightly compressed, its height very little less than its length, this last, measured to the gills, being rather less than one-fourth of the entire length. Profile falling from the dorsal in one regular slope, and nearly rectilineal till it arrives before the eyes, where it curves downwards, making the extremity of the snout obtuse. Mouth small, the upper jaw a little projecting; two maxillary cirri at each angle; these nearly equal; the lower one a little the longest, reaching to beneath the middle of the eye: also two short cirri, only half the length of the maxillary ones, pendent from the reflexed lower lip, a little separate from each other, one on each side of the middle. Teeth so minute as hardly to be distinguished; a row can just be felt on each jaw, and on the vomer. Head smooth. The number of dorsal laminć twenty-one; that of the ventral twenty.

Pectorals a little exceeding the length of the head; the spine nearly as long as the fin itself, but not exceeding one-fifth of the entire length; very strong, compressed, and sharp-pointed, with a few fine teeth or serratures on the inner margin, but smooth on the outer. Height of the dorsal more than half the depth, and a little more than its own length, this last equalling the space between it and the adipose: the spine strong, and similar to that of the pectoral. Anal directly underneath the adipose, and hardly occupying more space. Ventrals shorter than second soft ray in the dorsal, and scarcely reaching more than half-way to the anal: the first ray, as well as that of the anal, somewhat hispid. Caudal forked for half its length, which about equals that of the head: the lobes equal and pointed.

Colour. (In spirits.) General colour yellowish-brown, with dusky spots and mottlings: breast and edge of the abdomen whitish. Pectorals, ventrals, and anal, almost wholly dusky: dorsal and caudal spotted.

This species, in its general character, approaches so extremely near the C. punctatus of Valenciennes, that perhaps I am in error in considering it distinct. But it is remarkable for possessing, in addition to the four usual maxillary cirri, two labial, which are neither represented in D'Orbigny's figure,1 nor noticed in the description given in the Histoire des Poissons , and which therefore I infer are not present in that species, as they could hardly have been overlooked, or been deemed unimportant to be noticed. The maxillary cirri also, which in the C. punctatus , reach, according to Valenciennes, to the gill-opening, if not beyond it, here only attain to beneath the middle of the eye; and this character is invariable in five specimens which Mr. Darwin has brought home. Judging from the description, there would seem to be one or two further differences: the profile appears to be more rectilineal, the pectoral spine shorter, and smoother on its external margin. The colours are on the whole similar, but the pectorals and ventrals darker: the latter, which are said to be yellow in the C. punctatus, are here quite dusky in every one of the specimens.

1 Voy. dans L'Amer. Mérid., Atl. Ichth., pl. 5, fig. 1.

The exact locality in South America in which Mr. Darwin obtained this species is uncertain, as the specimens have lost their attached labels.




Poecilia unimaculata. Val. in Humb. Zool. et Anat. Comp., vol. ii, p. 158, pl. 51, fig. 2

Form. Body oval, slightly elongated, thick anteriorly, compressed behind. The dorsal and ventral lines meeting at the mouth at an acute angle; but the head, when viewed from above, broad, and very much flattened between the eyes, and the snout obtuse. Greatest depth about one-fourth of the entire length: thickness two-thirds of the depth. Length of the head nearly equalling, or a little less than, the depth of the body. Mouth small: jaws very protractile; each with a single row of very fine, close-set, pointed teeth; the lower one a trifle the longest. Eyes large, ,their diameter three and a half times in the length of the head, high in the cheeks, reaching to the line of the profile. Nostrils consisting of one small orifice a little above and rather in advance of the eyes.

Scales large, investing the head and all the pieces of the gill-cover, though very thin and transparent on the opercle and not very obvious there. On the body there are about eight in the depth, and twenty-seven or twenty-eight in a longitudinal row from the gill-opening to the caudal. One taken from the middle of the side found to be of a semi-elliptic form, the exposed portion marked with numerous very fine curved concentric lines, the basal with sixteen or seventeen deeper-cut nearly parallel strić gradually lengthening from the sides towards the middle, but not converging to a fan. Lateral line very faintly marked out by a dotted line, scarcely obvious in some places.

Dorsal small, commencing exactly at the middle point of the entire length, measuring this last quote to the extremity of the caudal. Anal similar and opposite; in strictness, however, terminating a very little in advance. The last ray in both these fins double: the first two in the anal short. Caudal rounded. Pectorals and ventrals small and narrow, the former three-fourths the length of the head; the latter not above half the same. The pectorals, when laid back, reach to the insertion of the ventrals, but the ventrals hardly reach to the commencement of the anal.

B. 5; D. 7; A. 9; C. about 24, including short ones; P. 14 or 15; V. 6

Length 2 inches

Colour. Greenish-brown, with a conspicuous black spot on the middle of each side, a little in advance of the commencement of the dorsal. Dorsl a little dotted and mottled with dusky, especially towards the tips of the rays. The other fins plain.

Habitat, Rio de Janeiro.

This species, which was discovered by Humboldt, was observed by Mr. Darwin in great numbers in fresh-water ditches at Rio de Janeiro: others were taken in equal plenty in a salt lagoon. The bellies of the females are very turgid when big with young, which are said to be excluded alive, and yellowish. Valenciennes, in his description, speaks of the opercle as being smooth, or without scales, though he says the preopercle is covered with scales; and he would lead one to suppose that they are absent on this part in the whole genus, as it enters into his generic character; I find them, however, present, though very thin and transparent, both in this species and the next.

The general resemblance which Poecilia bears to Mugil, as regards the form of the head and mouth, is very striking, and calls up irresistibly the idea of some relation of analogy between these two genera.




P. corpore sub-elongato, viridescenti-fusco; lateribus maculis nigris circiter decem serie longitudinali dispositis; pinnis immaculatis: dentibus subincisivis: caudali subtruncatŕ

D. 8; A. 10; C. 22, brevibus inclusis; P. 9; V. 5

Long. unc. 1. lin. 4

Form. More elongated than the last species; the snout not so acute when viewed laterally. Depth not more than one-fifth of the entire length, the length of the head being equal to it. Mouth and jaw similar; the teeth also in one row in each jaw, and forming a compact series, but more incisor-like than pointed, with oblique cutting edges. Scales of a different form and sculpture; more oblong than semi-elliptical, broader than long; the deep strić behind more numerous, amounting to twenty or more, and all drawn nearly of the same length. They cover all the pieces of the opercle as in the P. unimaculata.

Dorsal and anal exactly opposite, commencing at a point a little anterior to the middle of the entire length, reckoning this to the extremity of the caudal. Caudal rather more approaching to square than rounded; the number of rays fewer than in the last species. Pectorals narrower, having also fewer rays. Ventrals very small, scarcely more than half the length of the pectorals. When laid back, the pectorals reach to beyond the insertion of the ventrals: the ventrals do not attain to the anal.

Colour. Greenish-brown, with about ten conspicuous somewhat oval-shaped dusky spots, arranged in a longitudinal line along the middle of each side. All the fins plain.

Habitat, Maldonado.

This, which is evidently a new species of Poecilia, was taken by Mr. Darwin at Maldonado in a lake that had been suddenly drained. There are three specimens in the collection, none of them exceeding the length above given. Mr. Darwin, however, states in his notes that he believes them to be full grown, having taken them so repeatedly, in brooks, of the same size. The number of spots varies from nine to twelve, and is sometimes different on the two sides of the same specimen.

Independently of the spots, which at once characterize this species, it is readily distinguished from the last by its teeth, which are more cutting than pointed, and in this respect rather departing from the character of the genus as established by Valenciennes.




L.corpore subelongato, subcompresso, viridescenti-fusco; lateribus lineis circiter septem longitudinalibus nigris, e maculis parvis subconfluentibus formatis: dentibus uniseriatis: caudali rotundatâ

D. 9; A. 9; C. 26, brevibus inclusis; P. 13; V. 6

Long. unc. 1 lin. 10

Form. General form very similar to that of the Poecilia decem-maculata . Slightly compressed; the depth one-fifth of the length; the length of the head about four-and-a-half times in the same. Head depressed: snout obtuse: mouth small; the commissure horizontal. Upper jaw very protractile; the lower one rather the longest, when the mouth is shut. Teeth forming a single closely-set series, somewhat compressed at bottom, the cutting edges tricuspid. Diameter of the eye nearly one-fourth the length of the head. Some large conspicuous pores on the lower jaw, passing upwards in a series along the margin of the preopercle, not very near together, about eight or nine in all.

Scales large, covering the head and all the pieces of the gill cover, as well as the body. About eight in the depth, and thirty in a longitudinal line from the gill to the caudal. One taken from the middle of the side of a semi-elliptic somewhat oblong form; the free portion very finely striated, the basal with ten deeper-cut strić, these last nearly parallel, and of equal lengths. Lateral line faintly marked out by a dotted line; the first half in the third row of scales from the top, the last half in the fourth row.

Dorsal commencing at exactly the middle point of the entire length. Anal opposite and similar. Caudal rounded. Pectorals small, about two-thirds the length of the head. Ventrals smaller, barely one-half of the same. The pectorals, when laid back, reach to the insertion of the ventrals; but the latter hardly attain to the anal.

Colour. Greenish-brown, with six or seven longitudinal dark lines on the sides, the lines apparently made up of spots for the most part confluent, but here and there not so, interrupting the continuity of the lines. All the fins pale dusky, without any spots or markings.

Habitat, Maldonado.

This new species of Lebias was taken by Mr. Darwin in the same lake at Maldonado with the Poecilia decem-maculata . There are several specimens in the collection, none of them exceeding the size above mentioned, and they have all the appearance of being full grown. Some have the lines of spots much more interrupted than others.




L. corpore subelongato, subcompresso, viridescenti-fusco; lateribus fasciis angustis paucis longitudinalibus albidis obscurioribus: dentibus seriebus plurimis dispositis, omnibus tricuspidatis: caudali rotundatâ

D. 9; A. 9; C. 26, brevibus inclusis; P. 13. V. 6

Long. unc. 3. lin. 2

Form. The general form and proportions of this species are extremely similar to those of the last; but it differs very remarkably in having behind the anterior row of tricuspid teeth, a band of minute teeth above and below. Head one-fifth of the entire length; flattened on the crown. Jaws nearly equal; upper one very protractile. Scales large; about thirty-two in a longitudinal line, and eight in the depth; covering all the pieces of the opercle; similar in form to those of the last species, but with the strić on the fee portion finer and more numerous, the deep-cut basal strić also rather more numerous, amounting to about fourteen, and of unequal lengths, gradually increasing from the outermost to the middle ones. Lateral line similar; also the same pores on the lower jaw. Fins and fin-ray formula similar: in both species the first and last rays of the dorsal and anal are simple, and shorter than the others. The anal perhaps terminates a little nearer the caudal than the dorsal does.

Colour. (In spirits.) Greenish-brown, with very little appearance of markings in its present state. There is, however, some indication of an irregular scattered row of small black spots on each side, a little below the ridge of the back; also of two or three pale longitudinal narrow bands along the middle of the sides, which were probably more conspicuous in the living fish. The belly is yellow, and very timid; but these are evidently characters merely indicative of the female sex.

Habitat, Monte Video.

This another new species of Lebias taken by Mr. Darwin in fresh-water at Monte Video, if indeed it strictly belong to the genus; but the circumstance of the teeth being in several rows, and in fact forming a complete band, is at variance with the generic characters as given by Cuvier. The teeth however being exactly of the same form as in the other species, and the general characters on the whole similar, I have not thought it expedient to erect it into a new genus. There is but one specimen in the collection, which appears to be a large female big with young.



Corpus elongatum, gracile, antice subcylindricum, postice compressum, nudum, squamis nullis. Caput depressum. Rostrum breve, obtusum: os terminale, rictu modico. Maxillae debiles; superior margine ex ossibus intermaxillaribus omnino formato, maxillaribus retroductis et a labio partim celatis. Dentes minuti, acuti, in maxillá utrâque uniseriati; in linguâ et vomere biseriati; in ossibus palatinis et pharyngalibus nulli. Apertura branchialis amplissima, membranâ sex-radiatâ, subter gulam profundč emarginatâ, haud isthmo annexâ. Pinnae dorsalis et analis valde retropositae, oppsitae. Pinnae pectorales et ventrales parvae. Pinna caudalis leviter emarginata

There can be no doubt, I imagine, as to this being an entirely new form, and a very interesting one, from the circumstance of its being at the extreme end of the family to which it belongs, and its very much departing from the usual characters of that family. I have referred it to the Cyprinidae, taking that group in the enlarged view in which Cuvier accepts it; though by those who divide it into sub-families it would probably be associated with the Cobitidae, or made to constitute a distinct one by itself. It agrees with the Cyprinidae in general in the form of its mouth, in the upper jaw having its margin entirely formed by the intermaxillary, the maxillary being present, but placed behind and partly concealed in the thickness of the lip, and in the want of an adipose; but it altogether departs from that family in the entire want of scales, of which there is not even a vestige in the dried skin, and in which respect it would seem to show an affinity to the Siluridae. Yet it has none of the other characters of the family just mentioned. On the other hand, in the backward position of the dorsal and anal fins, which are opposite each other, it agrees with the Esocidae. The pharyngeal bones are unarmed, but this deficiency is made up for by the strong curved teeth on the tongue, independently of the minuter ones in the jaws.

The intestine is extremely short and quite straight, measuring only fourteen lines in length from the pylorus to the anus, in a specimen two inches and a half long. The stomach is of an oval form, of considerable capacity, very membranaceous, with the cardiac and pyloric openings near together at the upper extremity, from the latter of which the intestine is immediately reflexed to pass off to the anus. In the specimen dissected, the stomach was much distended by a nearly perfect individual of the genus Colymbetes, which appeared to have been recently swallowed, and was scarcely at all altered. There are no ccal appendages. The air-bladder is of an elongated oval form, and of considerable development.

Mr. Darwin's collection contains no less than three species of this new genus, differing but slightly from each other. Two are from the most southern parts of South America, the third from New Zealand.




M. viridescenti-fuscus; dorso et lateribus maculis crebris, hic et illic confluentibus, nigris; ventre niveo; pinnarum radiis nigro-punctatis

B. 6; D. 10; A. 16; C. 16, etc.; P. 12; V. 7

Long. unc. 2 lin. 8

Form. Slender and very much elongated. Body anteriorly subcylindrical, compressed behind. Greatest depth not more than one-eighth of the entire length: thickness about three-fourths of the depth. Head rather depressed, about one-sixth of the entire length. Snout short and rounded; mouth at the extremity; the gape moderate, not quite reaching to beneath the anterior angle of the eye. Lower jaw ascending a little to meet the upper, and, when the mouth is open, appearing rather the longest. Intermaxillary fixed, forming the entire margin of the upper jaw, the maxillary being behind it, and, though of nearly equal development, not very distinct: both bones slender. Teeth small, but sharp-pointed, rather widely apart, arranged in a single row along the edge of the intermaxillary, and in the lower jaw; the series above consists of about eighteen, that below of about twenty-one: also a double longitudinal row on the tongue, each row containing five or six teeth, the anterior ones curved, and larger than any of those in the jaws: a similar double row, but of minuter ones, down the middle of the vomer; none, however, on the palatines or pharyngeans. Eyes rather large, their diameter contained about three and a half times in the length of the head, distant scarcely one diameter from the end of the snout. The nostrils appear to consist of only a single aperture in front of the eye, in the neighbourhood of which, and also above the eye, are several large pores. The opercle and subopercle taken together approach to an oblong form, the posterior margin being straight and nearly vertical: the subopercle is not much developed, nor very distinct. Gill-opening very large, the membrane thick, with six rays, deeply notched beneath, and not fastened down. The whole skin is perfectly smooth and naked, invested with mucosity. No appearance of any lateral line, unless a fine dark streak be so called, passing along the middle of the sides, and dividing them into two equal parts.

The dorsal and anal are opposite to each other, and both placed very far back, almost at the extremity of the body. They commence in nearly the same vertical line, a very little anterior to the commencement of the last third of the entire length; but the anal being longer than the dorsal, it extends nearer to the caudal. The form of these fins is much as in the genus Cobitis. The dorsal has the first three rays simple, the rest branched: the anal also has the first three simple, the first very short. Caudal about one-eighth of the entire length, with a shallow notch, the principal rays branched. The vent is just before the anal. The ventrals arise from about the middle of the entire length, the distance from their insertion to the commencement of the anal being twice their own length. The pectorals are small, and rather narrow, equalling about two-thirds the length of the head or hardly so much: they are attached low down, but not quite so low as in the genus Cobitis.

Colour. (In spirits.) Greenish-brown, with numerous conspicuous spots and small irregular transverse bars of black. Under a lens the spots appear to be made up of thickly crowded black specks upon a dark brown ground: the bars result from some of the spots being confluent. The belly appears to have been white. The rays of all the fins are dotted with dusky, but the membranes transparent and colourless.

The individual described above was taken by Mr. Darwin in a fresh-water brook, in Hardy Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego. His collection, however, contains four other specimens found in streamlets and creeks high up the river of Santa Cruz in Patagonia, where they are said to have been numerous. Though these last are slightly different, they are evidently referable to the same species: they also vary a little from each other. Their peculiarities are as under:

The largest measures 2 inches 8 lines in length, and has the following fin-ray formula.

D. 12; A. 16; C. 16, etc.; P. 14; V. 7

The next in size is 2 inches 6 lines, with the fin-ray formula thus:

D. 11; A. 16; C. 16, etc.; P. 13; V. 7

These specimens agree in being both slenderer than the one from Tierra del Fuego. The depth is eight and a half, if not nine times in the entire length: the head rather more than one-sixth of the same. The colours are similar, except that the spots are not quite so numerous, and of a more regular form, seldom running together to form bars.

It is to these specimens that Mr. Darwin's notes refer, respecting the colours of this species in the recent state. As follows: ‘Pale greenish brown, with small irregular transverse bars of black; belly snow white.’ - D.

The third of the Patagonian specimens is 2 in. 2 lin. long. Fin-ray formula -

D. 10; A. 15; C. 16, etc.; P. 14; V. 7

The fourth is of the same length.

D. 11; A. 15; C. 16, etc.; P. 13; V. 7

These last two specimens are exactly similar to each other in colours, but differ from the former two in being almost immaculate, having only a few spots on the upper part of the back. This brings them very close to the following species, from which they are scarcely to be distinguished, except by their smaller eyes. It should be observed further, that the fleshy part of the tail in these specimens has the upper and under edges fringed with the short accessory rays of the caudal, a character which is not so obvious in any of the others.



M. viridescenti-fuscus, dorso saturatiore; hoc, et lateribus, et punis, nigro levissimč irroratis, immaculatis; ventre niveo; oculis majusculis

D. 10; A. 16; C. 16, etc.; P. 13; V. 7 Long. unc. 2. lin. 5

Form. Very little difference in form between this and the last species. The eyes, however, are decidedly larger, measuring in diameter one-third the length of the head. The head itself also appears somewhat longer, being nearly one-fifth of the entire length. The anterior teeth on the tongue do not seem much larger than the others. Fins similar.

Colour. (In spirits.) Greenish brown, deepening in tint at the top of the back. Back, sides, and fins, immaculate, but thickly powdered with minute dark specks, scarcely visible except under a lens. These specks give the fins a more dusky appearance than they possess in the last species. The belly appears to have been white.

A second specimen does not differ from the above in any respect, except in being rather smaller, and scarcely more than two inches in length.

Habitat, Tierra del Fuego.

This species was taken by Mr. Darwin in alpine fresh-water lakes in Hardy Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego. I have no hesitation in considering it distinct from the last, as there are two specimens exactly similar, both showing a large eye, and an entire absence of all approach to spots; while the whole surface of the back and sides is thickly irrorated with dark specks, a character which does not appear in the plain varieties of the M. maculatus.




M. viridescenti-fuscus, ventre vix pallidiore; dorso, et lateribus, pinnarumque radiis, sparsim nigro levissimč irroratis, immaculatis: corpore prćgracili, anticč attenuato; capite et oculis minoribus

D. 11; A. 17; C. 16, etc.; P. 12; V. 7 Long. unc. 2. lin. 6

Form. Rather more slender than either of the last two species, the body more attenuated anteriorly; the head also smaller, though scarcely shorter. Mouth and eyes both smaller; the diameter of the latter not more than one-fourth of the length of the head. Teeth also rather more minute as well as more numerous. The fins are similar, except that the ventrals appear to stand rather more forward, being attached exactly in the middle of the entire length, excluding caudal: the distance from their insertion to the commencement of the anal is more than twice their own length. The outer rays of the caudal are worn, but there was probably a shallow notch when entire: the short accessory rays are very numerous, and form a very distinct fringe along the upper and lower edges of the fleshy part of the tail.

Colour. (In spirits.) Greenish-brown, much more uniform than in either of the last two species, not deepening on the back, and scarcely becoming paler underneath. The back, sides, and rays of the fins, are finely irrorated with dusky specks, as in the M. alpinus, but not to the same extent, the specks being more thinly scattered, and here and there scarcely visible. From the same cause the fins appear paler.

Habitat, Bay of Islands, New Zealand.

This, which is a very distinct species of this new genus, was taken by Mr.Darwin in freshwater in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. It is well characterized by its more attenuated head and smaller eye, than those of either of the two others.