Atherina argentinensis, Cuv. et Val., Hist. des Poiss., tom. x , p. 350.

Form. Depth exactly one-sixth of the length, measuring this last to the end of the middle caudal rays. The length of the head is five and a-half times in the same, measuring this last to the end of the caudal lobes. Thickness of the body at least half the depth. Head broad and flat, its breadth across the crown behind the eyes equalling three-fourths of its depth. Snout rounded horizontally, but sharp vertically. The profile is perfectly horizontal; and one uniform straight line extends from the extremity of the upper jaw to the commencement of the second dorsal. Ventral line swelling a little outwards, with its greatest curvature about the middle. Upper jaw a very little longer than the lower, which ascends to meet it at an angle of 45°: gape not reaching more than half-way to the eye, at first horizontal, afterwards deflexed. in each jaw two rows of teeth, stronger and more developed than usual in this genus, widely asunder, and at irregular intervals: in the upper jaw these two rows are equal; in the lower the outer row is stronger than the inner: the outer row above contains about thirty-two or thirty-three teeth; that below twenty-six or twenty-eight: no teeth on the tongue, and scarcely any that can be seen on the vomer or palatines, though a slight roughness can be felt on the last two. Eyes moderately large; their diameter a very little less than one-fourth the length of the head; situate a little in advance of the middle point, and also a little above the middle of the depth. Cheeks and gill-covers scaly. Form of the scales of the body, as well as the number of longitudinal rows, exactly as stated by Cuvier and Valenciennes. The same may be said of the lateral line, and the situation of the dorsal fins. The second dorsal and anal terminate in the same vertical line. Pectorals exactly the length of the head. Ventrals attached immediately below the tips of the pectorals. Breadth of the silver band, which runs straight along the middle of the sides, exactly one-fifth of the greatest depth of the body.

D. 5-1/9; A. 1/19; C. 17, etc.; P. 15; V. 1/5

Length 8 inches

Colour. ‘Silvery, with a silver lateral band: above bluish grey.’ -D. In spirits, it appears greenish brown, becoming deeper above the silver band and on the ridge of the back: the free margins of the scales are finely dotted with black: the rays of the caudal have been worn at the tips, but there is a trace of the dusky edging noticed by Cuvier: the pectorals are also stained with dusky.

Habitat, Maldonado.

I conceive there is but little doubt of this being the A. argentinensis of Cuvier and Valenciennes; but as the description in the Histoire des Poissons is short, I have thought it advisable to give a more detailed one of the above specimen. Mr. Darwin took it at Maldonado, where he states that it is very common, adding that it is sometimes found in the brackish water. M. D'Orbigny had also found it previously at the mouth of the Rio de Plata.



PLATE XVI. FIG. 1. Nat. size. FIG. 2.a, b. Magnified scales.

A. gracilis; corporis altitudine partem octavam, capite quintam, longitudinis aequante: oculis mediocribus: maxillis sub-aequalibus, parum protraclibus; commissurâ primum horizontali, deinde paulo deflexâ, haud oculos attingente: dentibus velutinis, serie externâ supra subtusque fortiori: dorsali primâ omnino pone ventrales reclinatas locatâ: squamis parvis, seriebus longitudinalibus octodecim ad minimum dispositis

D. 5-1/11; A. 1/17; C. 17, etc.; P. 15; V. 1/5

Long. unc. 4

Form. More slender and elongated than the generality of the species in this genus. Greatest depth not more than one-eighth of the entire length. Head one-fifth of the same. Greatest thickness (in the region of the gills) equalling two-thirds of the depth, or rather more. Ventral line of the body scarcely more curved than the dorsal. The upper profile falls, though very slightly, from the nape to the mouth, and the lower profile inclines upwards to meet it at about the same degree of curvature. Head broad, its breadth across the crown nearly equalling its depth. Snout horizontally rounded. Jaws nearly equal; not so protractile as in some other species: the commissure of the lips at first horizontal, but posteriorly inclining a little downward, and scarcely reaching more than half-way to the eye. In each jaw two rows of slender very distinct teeth, with traces fo a third or even fourth row above, towards the middle: outer row longest and most conspicuous, consisting, in the upper jaw, of from forty-five to fifty teeth; in the lower of scarcely more than twenty-five. No teeth that can be seen on the vomer or palatines, though a slight roughness can be felt on both. Eyes of moderate size; their diameter rather more than one-fourth the length of the head; almost entirely before the middle, as well as above it: space between the eyes flat, and exceeding the diameter by about one-third: a slightly elevated line on each side of this space, but no other conspicuous sculpture. Opercle with the descending margin sloping obliquely forwards.

Crown, cheeks, and gill-covers scaly, the scales on the crown extending as far as the eyes. Scales on the body small, the number of longitudinal rows amounting to eighteen or twenty: in form nearly square, the length a little exceeding the breadth, the superficies marked with numerous very distinct concentric lines, the basal half with a fan of from four to six deeper cut strić, the basal margin rather sinuous, and obsoletely crenate where the striae meet it. No lateral line very distinguishable.

First dorsal small and delicate, commencing exactly at the middle point of the entire length, measuring this last to the bottom of the caudal fork, and in a line with the tips of the ventrals, these last fins being laid back. Space between the first and second dorsals a little exceeding two thirds of the depth of the body. Length and height of the second dorsal equal to each other, and also to the space just alluded to. From the end of the second dorsal to the commencement of the caudal is exactly one-sixth of the entire length. The posterior half of the anal nearly answers to the second dorsal, but the two fins do not terminated exactly in the same line, the dorsal extending a little the furthest. Caudal forked for about half its length. Pectorals about two-thirds the length of the head. Ventrals attached at a point beyond the extremity of the pectorals. Breadth of the silver band about one-fifth the depth of the body.

Colour. Not noticed in the recent state. In spirits, the back and sides above the silver band are brownish, with the contour of each scale marked out by black dots. All below the band appears to have been silvery. The band itself is not very brilliant. Both the dorsals, as well as the caudal, are dusky: anal and ventrals pale.

A second specimen does not differ from the above, excepting slightly in the fin-ray formula, which is as follows:

D. 5-1/10; A. 1/15; etc.

Habitat, Valparaiso.

This species was found by Mr. Darwin at Valparaiso in fresh water, in the month of August. It would seem to be nearly allied to the A. laticlavia of Cuvier and Valenciennes, brought from the same locality by M. D'Orbigny; but, judging from the short description in the Histoire des Poissons , it is more elongated, and has the head longer in relation to the depth of the body; also has the silver band narrower. In the A. laticlavia, the head is said to be equal to the depth, and to be contained six times in the entire length; the breadth of the silver band to be greater than in any other species. In the A. microlepidota , the depth is one-eighth and the head one-sixth of the length: the silver band not broader than in the A. argentinensis and some others. The colouring also of the fins appears different in the two species.



PLATE XVI. FIG. 2. Nat. size.
FIG. 2.a.
Twice nat. size.
FIG. 2.b.
Magnified scale.

A. gracillima; corporis altitudine partem vix nonam, capite sextam, longitudinis aequante: oculis mediocribus: maxillis aequalibus, valde protractilibus; commissurâ primum horizontali, posterius deflexâ: dentibus velutinis, in maxillâ inferiore minutissimis: dorsali primâ omnino pone ventrales reclinatas locatâ:squamis mediocribus, seriebus longitudinalibus duodecim ad maximum dispositis, marginibus liberis inciso-crenatis: vittâ laterali nitidč argenteâ

D. 5-1/8; A. 1/17; C. 17; P. 12; V. 1/5
D. 5-1/9; A. 1/19; etc.
D. 6-1/10; A. 1/19; etc.

Long. unc. 2. lin. 6

Form. Still more slender and elongated than the last species. Greatest depth scarcely one-ninth of the entire length: head one-sixth. Dorsal and ventral lines very little curved. General characters of the head, snout and mouth, as in the A. microlepidota, but the jaws more protractile. A row of minute velutine teeth in each jaw most developed above. Eyes moderately large; their diameter nearly one-third the length of the head; the space between them just equal to their diameter. Opercle with the posterior margin nearly vertical. Scales larger than in the A. microlepidota; the number of longitudinal rows not exceeding twelve: their form different, and rather peculiar, the anterior or free edge of each scale in some instances presenting two or three processes, separated by deep incisions; in others being irregularly notched or jagged, according to the spot whence taken: the surface is marked with concentric lines, but there is no fan of strić on the basal half: the breadth of the scale a little exceeds its length, and the basal margin is irregularly sinuous.

First dorsal answering to the space between the tips of the reclined ventrals and the anal. Length of the second dorsal exceeding the intermediate space between it and the first. From the end of the second dorsal to the caudal is rather more than one-fifth of the entire length. Depth of the caudal fork not exceeding one-third the length of the fin. The anal commences in an exact line with the termination of the first dorsal: rather less than its posterior half answers to the second dorsal. Pectorals rather long, measuring nearly one-sixth of the entire length. Breadth of the silver band one-fourth the depth of the body.

Colour. ‘Body semitransparent, colourless; with a bright silver band on each side; also marked with silvery about the head.’ - D. The band is remarkably bright, and well defined, much more so than in the last species.

I have ventured to consider this as a new species, though none of the specimens in the collection, amounting to three in number, exceed two inches and a half in length, and are probably not full-sized. The form of the scales is so peculiar, that if it were only the young of some described species, it could hardly fail to be identified by such a character, which is not likely to be affected by age, nor to have escaped the notice of an observer. Yet I can find none answering to it in the Histoire des Poissons . The silvery band also is remarkably bright; though the slenderness of the body, another of its peculiarities, is perhaps due to immaturity. The fin-ray formula is somewhat different in the three specimens, as shown above, but in other respects they are similar.

Mr. Darwin's notes state that this species was taken in the month of September, in 39° S. Lat., 61° W. Long., several miles from the land. This last circumstance, indeed, would seem to indicate that the specimens were not so very young, as the fry of most fish keep close in shore.



1. MUGIL LIZA. Cuv. et Val.?

Mugil liza, Cuv. et Val., Hist. des Poiss., tom. xi , p. 61.

Form. Elongated: the depth contained about five and a half times in the entire length: the head exactly five times: height of the head at the nape two-thirds its own length. Mouth chevron-formed, with a tubercle at the extremity of the lower jaw: lips thin. Some extremely minute teeth in the jaws, but none on the palate or tongue. Suborbital obliquely truncated at the posterior angle, but not dilated towards the extremity; the lower or anterior margin straight, and scarcely if at all denticulated: the maxillary slender, not longer than the suborbital, and concealed beneath it when the mouth is closed. The eye has an adipose veil covering a large portion of the iris: diameter of the orbit one-fourth the length of the head: distance from the eye to the end of the snout, equalling only three-fourths of the diameter. Orifices of the nostrils widely separate. Number of scales in a longitudinal row about thirty-five; perhaps one or two more: in the depth about twelve. Fourth dorsal spine very weak. A large triangular scale above the pectorals; the same also above the ventrals; this last, which is the longer of the two, equalling one-fourth the length of the fin.

D. 4-1/8; A. 3/8; C. 14, etc.; P. 16; V. 1/5

Length 11 inches 3 lines

Colour. ‘Back coloured like Labrador felspar: iris coppery.’ - D. The dried specimen shows traces of about twelve longitudinal lines similar to those of many other species.

A second specimen exactly resembles the above, except in being smaller, measuring barely eight inches, and in showing rather more trace of denticulations on the suborbital.

Habitat, Bahia Blanca and Monte Video.

This species, which has the general characters of the M. cephalus of the European seas, is probably the M. liza of Cuvier and Valenciennes; but the specimens are in a bad state of preservation, and some of the characters cannot be accurately ascertained. The depth of the body appears to have been rather greater than what is mentioned in the Histoire des Poissons: there is also some appearance of small scales on the second dorsal and anal, which, according to Cuvier and Valenciennes, is the distinguishing characteristic of their next species, the M. curema ; but is will not agree with this last in its other details.

The larger of the above specimens was taken at Bahia Blanca, where Mr. Darwin's notes state that it is plentiful; the smaller one at Monte Video.



2. MUGIL ____?

Mr. Darwin's collection contains a second species of this genus from the Keeling Islands, which does not appear to be identical with any of those described by Cuvier and Valenciennes; but as there is but one specimen, in a very bad state of preservation, and the species inhabiting the Indian Ocean are very numerous, as well as extremely similar to each other. I refrain from describing and naming it as certainly new. I shall therefore merely point out some of its leading characters, so far as they can be ascertained; in the hope that they may prove of use in leading others to identify it who may visit the above Islands hereafter.

Form and appearance of the mouth similar to that of the M. labeo of the Mediterranean. Lips fleshy, and very much developed, with the borders fringed; the lower one partially reflexed. Apparently no trace of teeth anywhere. Suborbital with a shallow notch on its anterior margin, obliquely truncated at its posterior angle, and obsoletely denticulated. Maxillary slender and slightly bent, nearly concealed beneath the suborbital, but showing a little beneath it, from its being a trifle longer. The head is a little less than one-fifth of the entire length: the snout short, and rather obtuse. Longitudinal diameter of the eye contained three and a half-times in the length of the head: no appearance of any adipose veil. Orifices of the nostril approximating. The depth of the body cannot be accurately ascertained, but it appears to have been about one-fifth of the entire length. The commencement of the anal is but very little in advance of that of the second dorsal; both fins appear to have been covered with small scales. Pectorals not quite so long as the head: apparently no elongated scale above them: one, however, above the ventrals, half the length of those fins. The fin-ray formula is as follows:

D. 4-1/8; A. 3/9; C. 14; P. 16; V. 1/5

The length of this fish is eight inches.




Dajaus diemensis, Richards., in Proceed. of Zool. Soc., 1840, p. 25.

This genus, which was established by Cuvier and Valenciennes, differs from Mugil principally in having vomerine and palatine teeth: the snout also is rather more produced, and the mouth less chevron-formed. There is but one species described in the Histoire des Poissons , which is found in fresh water in the Caribbee Islands. Dr. Richardson has briefly noticed a second from Van Diemen's Land, in his recent description of a collection of fishes from that country, in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society. Mr. Darwin's collection contains a specimen of this genus from King George's Sound, which, having reason to think it might be the same as that described by Dr. Richardson, I sent to this latter gentleman, requesting him to compare them. This he obligingly did, and informed me in his answer that he could detect no differences between them, beyond what might be the result of the different manner in which they were preserved, his own specimens being in spirits, and Mr. Darwin's dried.

I forebear giving a detailed description of this species, as one by Dr. Richardson will appear shortly in the Transactions of the Zoological Society; and Mr. Darwin's specimen is in such a bad state of preservation, as hardly to admit of an accurate description of it being taken. I may just allude, however, to some of its more striking peculiarities.

It appears to differ from the D. monticola of Cuvier and Valenciennes in having the teeth in the lower jaw, if they really exist, so minute and thinly scattered as to be scarcely perceptible; those in the upper jaw, however, are very distinct; so likewise are the vomerine and palatine bands. There are also some very obvious teeth on the tip, and at the sides of the tongue, though few in the middle: this part is said to be without any asperities in the D. monticola. The suborbital is more rounded off at the lower angle anteriorly, and the denticulations thereon rather more numerous and better developed. The scales on the body, those especially above the lateral line, have a few minute teeth on their free edges, communicating a roughness to the touch; a character not alluded to in the description of the D. monticola, and which therefore may be presumed absent. There are also three more rays in the anal, and one in the second dorsal.

The depth of the body in this specimen, from its bad state of preservation, cannot be ascertained; but the head is contained about four and a-half times in the entire length. The diameter of the orbit is one-fourth the length of the head; and there is nearly one diameter between it and the end of the snout. The jaw are nearly equal, but when the mouth is closed, the upper one projects a trifle; this last is also moderately protractile. The maxillary retires beneath the suborbital. The fin-ray formula is as follows:

D. 4-1/9; A. 3/12; C. 14, etc.; P. 15; V. 1/5

There is but one individual of this species in the collection, which measures seven inches in length. The colours do not appear to have been noticed.