The following Appendix contains descriptions of a few species, which were omitted to be noticed in their proper places; and further remarks with respect to some, which will be found in the body of the work.





A. elongatus: lateribus supra pallide olivaceis, fasciis transversis abbreviatis, lineisque longitudinaliter undantibus, nigris; lateribus infra argenteis: pinnis dorsalibus et caudali punctatis; pinnis, reliquis, et lineâ laterali, albidis

B. 6; D. 8-25; A. 1/22; C. 14, et 6 brevioribus; P. 22; V. 1/5

Long. unc. 3. lin. 1

Form. Elongated; the depth about one-sixth of the entire length; the thickness two-thirds of the depth. Head four-and-a-half times in the length. Profile falling very gradually at first, but more rapidly in advance of the eyes, causing the snout to appear rather obtuse. Mouth small: maxillary slender, hardly reaching to a vertical line from the anterior margin of the orbit: upper jaw slightly longer than the lower, and very protractile. Teeth very minute, forming a narrow velutine band: a patch on the chevron of the vomer scarcely visible, but capable of being distinctly felt; none apparent on the palatines. Eye one-fourth of the length of the head, and distant one diameter from the end of the snout; the interocular space rather less than the diameter. Snout slightly indented, or furrowed out in front of the eyes. A series of impressions on the lower jaw, and along the limb of the preopercle, but much less obvious than in the next species, and not distinctly porous. Preopercle with the ascending margin vertical, the angle at bottom rounded; the limb broad and distinctly marked, with the boundary line between it and the cheek slightly elevated into a ridge. The opercle, with its membrane, produced backwards in an angle, the subopercle being visible beneath. The branchial membrane six-rayed, and fastened to the isthmus underneath, the aperture commencing beneath the ascending margin of the preopercle.

Lateral line commencing at the upper angle of the gill-opening, and following the curvature of the back at one-fourth of the depth, and preserving this direction throughout its course, not falling to the middle before losing itself in the caudal. Scales small, covering the whole head and body, except the snout in front of the eyes, the jaws, and the limb of the preopercle. The free portion of each scale marked with several small concentric circles, the free edge finely ciliated: the basal portion with a fan of seven striæ, and the spaces between these deeper striae with minuter striæ running transversely: the basal margin cut square.

Pectorals attached rather low down, and a little posterior to the terminating angle of the opercle; their length about three-fourths that of the head: the fourth to the eighth rays longest; the first ray only half the length of the second; the first two, and the last three or four, simple; the rest branched. Ventrals about four-fifths the length of the pectorals, and in advance of those fins by nearly half their own length; their spine very distinct. First dorsal short, commencing immediately above the insertion of the pectoral: all the spines very slender, with the intervening membrane delicate; the second longest, equalling about half the depth; the third and following ones gradually decreasing. Second dorsal long, separated from the very first by a very small interval, and occupying a space just equal to the distance between its commencement and the end of the snout: the rays gradually decreasing in length from the anterior ones, which equal three-fourths of the depth; all simple, or if branched, only so at their extreme tips. The interval between the second dorsal and the caudal contained eight-and-a-half times in the entire length. Anal commencing under the sixth ray of the second dorsal, or exactly at the middle point of the entire length, caudal excluded; extending a trifle beyond the second dorsal, but in other respects answering to that fin. Caudal square when spread, but very slightly notched when the rays are close; contained six-and-a-half times in the entire length; the principal rays branched.

Colour. (In spirits.) Back and upper half of the sides pale olivaceous, with about seven or eight abbreviated, transverse, dusky fasciae; beneath there are two irregular lines undulating longitudinally in a zig-zag manner, and having rather a tendency to meet at the angles, so as to form a connected longitudinal chain of diamond-shaped links. Lower portion of the sides and abdomen silvery. Tubal pores of the lateral line white, making this line very evident. Dorsal and caudal fins speckled with small dusky spots and points. Pectorals, ventrals, and anal, quite plain, and whitish.

A second specimen in the collection exactly resembles the above, except in being not quite so large, and in having a ray less in each of the two dorsal fins.

Habitat, Chonos Archipelago, W. coast of S. America.

The genus Aphritis was first established by M. Valenciennes, in the appendix to the eight volume of the Histoire des Poissons, for the reception of a small Percoid fish obtained by MM. Quoy and Gaimard in Van Diemen's Land, inhabiting fresh-water. The species above described, which was taken by Mr. Darwin in Lowe's Harbour, South of Chiloe, appears to be referable to the same genus. It differs, however, in many respects from the A. urvillii , the only one which Valenciennes has noticed. The relative situation of the first dorsal with respect to the pectorals, and of the anal with respect to the second dorsal, is different: there are fewer rays in the anal, and more in the second dorsal: the upper, instead of the lower jaw, as represented in Valencienne's figure, is rather the longest; neither can I discern any teeth on the palatines, though there is a patch of very minute ones in front of the vomer.

That this species really belongs to Aphritis , would seem indicated not merely by the aggregate of its external characters, but by the internal structure also, which was examined in one of the two specimens brought home by Mr. Darwin, and found comformable to what is stated by Valenciennes, in this respect, of the A. urvillii. The stomach is large, with four very distinct ccal appendages, and there is no air-bladder.

The A. undulatus , which I have so named in reference to the undulating longitudinal lines on the sides, is very Cypriniform in general appearance, and not altogether unlike the common minnow, Cyprinus phoxinus.



A. brevior: pallide olivaceus, lateribus fasciis transversis obsoletis nigricantibus; pinnis omnibus brunneis: maxillâ inferiore, et limbo preoperculi, poris conspicuis circiter novem, suborbitalibus circiter quinque, seriatim dispositis

D. 8-25; A. 1/22; C. 14, etc.; P. 23; V. 1/5

Long. unc. 2. lin. 5

Form. Not so much elongated as the last species: the depth rather more than one-sixth of the entire length, and the head only four times in the same. Also distinguished by a row of large mucous pores on the lower jaw, passing upwards posteriorly, and continued along the limb of the preopercle: the number of these pores on each side is nine or ten: a row of similar pores, amounting to about five, passes backwards from a little above the end of the maxillary beneath each eye. In other respects, the form is similar to that of the last species, excepting that the interval between the second dorsal and the caudal is only one-eighth of the entire length, in consequence of the body being less elongated.

Colour. (In spirits.) Back and upper half of the sides, olivaceous brown; beneath silvery. No very obvious markings; but traces may be seen of six or seven transverse dusky fasciæ, reaching from the back to a little beneath the lateral line, which were probably more distinct in the recent state. All the fins brownish; the dorsal a little powdered with dusky specks. The fourth and fifth rays of the ventrals are white, and appear to have been always of a different colour from the rest of the fin.

Habitat, Coast of Patagonia.

This appears to be another new species of Aphritis, taken by Mr. Darwin on mud-banks, in Port Desire central Patagonia. It is very closely allied to the A. undulatus, but, I conceive, certainly distinct. There is but one specimen in the collection.




Mr. Darwin's collection contains a species of this genus procured in King George's Sound, New Holland, which, from the bad state of preservation of the specimen, it is scarcely possible to identify with certainty. Possibly it may be new, as it does not seem to accord very exactly with any of those described in the Histoire des Poissons ; but I shall not consider it such, nor do more than point out a few of its more obvious characters.

It is not determinable, whether it was originally one of the naked species of this genus, or whether the scales have been rubbed off, but probably the former. The suborbital and preopercular spines are strong, and considerably developed: the former reaches back further than the maxillary, and nearly to the posterior part of the orbit, and has another very small spine at its base. The lower jaw advances beyond the upper. The head is about one-third of the entire length. The eyes are large, their diameter being contained about three and a half times in the length of the head. The dorsal commences in a line with the ascending margin of the preopercle. The first spine is half the length of the second; the second is a little shorter than the third, which is longest, and equals two-thirds of the depth of the body; the fourth and succeeding ones decrease very gradually; the soft portion of this fin is a little higher than the hinder part of the spinous. The first anal spine is rather more than half the length of the second, which is the strongest of the three, though not much longer than the third. The pectorals are rather pointed, and a little shorter than the head. The ventrals are attached a little behind the pectorals, and are not very much shorter than those fins.

The following is the fin-ray formula:

D. 13/9; A. 3/6; C. 11, etc.; P. 11; V. 1/5

Length 4 inches 6 lines

The species to which this approaches nearest would seem to be the A. niger of Cuvier and Valenciennes ; but there is no appearance of the small elevations on the skin resembling hairs, which those authors mention in their description of this last, and, on the whole, I am inclined to consider it as distinct.


Notwithstanding what I have advanced in regard to this species, further consideration has inclined me to suspect, that it may prove ultimately only the young of the A. peruvianus. In that case, however, it would appear that the absence of vomerine teeth can only be assigned as a character of this genus in the adult state.




This new species of Otolithus is form Callao: it was omitted to be noticed in the body of the work. There is but one specimen in the collection, in bad condition, and not admitting of a very detailed description; but it is evidently distinct from all the species described by Cuvier and Valenciennes.

It is rather more elongated than the O. guatucupa, the depth being not much more than one-fifth of the entire length. The head is long, and contained three and a half times in the same. The lower jaw is considerably the longest. The teeth above are small, and sharp-pointed, apparently in two rows, the outer row being a little stronger than the inner: there are two very strong canines in front, springing from between the rows. Below, the teeth are in two rows in front, and one at the sides; those in front small, but those at the sides unequally sized, three or four, standing at intervals, being much stronger than the others, and very sharp. Diameter of the eye about one-sixth the length of the head; its distance from the end of the snout one diameter and a half.

The lateral line is continued to the extremity of the caudal, between the ninth and tenth rays. There is a small interval between the two dorsal fins. The second dorsal, as well as the anal, are longer than in the O. guatucupa, with more soft rays, especially the anal. The pectorals are narrow and pointed, and between one-half and two-thirds the length of the head. The ventrals are attached almost exactly beneath the pectorals. The caudal appears to have been square.

D. 9-1/24; A. 1/16; P. 17; V. 1/5

Length 12 inches

Colour. The colours were not noticed when recent, and can hardly be judged of now. The general tint appears to have been silvery. If there were any markings, no traces of them remain.

Habitat, Callao, Peru.

This species has a longer anal than any of the American species described by Cuvier and Valenciennes. I have in consequence named it analis.



It has been suggested that this may be nothing more than a monstrosity. Whether this be really the fact or not, can only be determined by the examination of more specimens. But in either case, I am so satisfied now of its being a Serranus in all its essential characters, that I conceive it never can be placed in a different family from that genus. If the fact be established of its never possessing vomerine and palatine teeth, such a character can, at the very outmost, serve only to distinguish it as a subgenus in that group. But every day is bringing more and more to light the small value of that character.



I am informed by Mr. Lowe, of Madeira, that this is the same as the Glyphisodon luridus of Cuvier and Valenciennes .1 Their description is so short, that I failed to recognize it; and I was induced to consider it as a new genus from the circumstance of its possessing vomerine teeth. Whether these teeth exist in any other species, or have only been presumed absent in all, because not found in some, I am not aware. But here again we see how little such a character is to be depended upon.

1 Hist. des Poiss., tom. 5 , p. 356.




Mr. Darwin's collection contains two new forms from South America, closely allied to each other, yet forming distinct genera, and which will not enter into any of those described by authors. At first it was conceived that they were Malacopterygian fishes, more especially from their having all the rays in the dorsal and anal fins articulated; and to belong to the Apodal division of that group, from their being supposed to be without ventrals; but, on a closer inspection, the ventrals, which are very small, were found to have been overlooked, and it was evident altogether that the true place of these fishes in the system was amongst the Blennidae. The mention of this circumstance will explain why they were omitted to be noticed in their proper place.

These two genera, so far as can be judged from the situations in which Mr. Darwin obtained them, have the same habits as the Blennies, lurking under stones and weeds; and I propose to give them respectively the names of Iluoctes and Phucoctes.



Corpus elongatum, antice subcylindricum, postice compressum, ensiforme, laeve, nudum, alepidotum. Rostrum breve, obtusum, rotundatum, ultrà maxillam inferiorem productum. Dentes acuti, subconici, in utrâque maxillâ uniseriati: supra canini duo fortes, curvati, antici, et prae serie exstantes: in vomere dentes pauci acuti aggregati; in utroque palatino uniseriati. Lingua laevis. Oculi grandes, prominuli. Apertura branchialis mediocriter fissa, membranâ quinque-radiatâ. Maxillae, os suborbitale, et praeoperculum, tubiporis cutaneis brevibus ad margines fimbriatae. Pinnae ventrales jugulares, minutae, gracillissimae, triradiatae. Pinnae dorsalis et analis praelongae, caudali coalescentes, radiis omnibus articulatis

If I am right in placing this new genus amongst the Blennidae, it will evidently take its place next to Zoarces , to which it is more nearly allied than to any other group in that family. It agrees especially with Zoarces , not only in general form, but in having all the dorsal and anal rays articulated (excepting one in the dorsal, which possibly may be an accident in the only specimen examined), and in having the ventral fins extremely small. On the other hand, it departs from that genus, in having the body entirely naked, and free from scales; in the two remarkable canines in front of the upper jaw, and in having teeth on the palate; also in having no notch at the posterior part of the dorsal. It is further remarkable for its large prominent eyes, and the rows of tubipores on the cheeks. Amongst the true Malacopterygians, it approaches nearest to Ophidium, and, but for the circumstance of its possessing ventrals, it might perhaps be ranged under that genus. It is, however, evidently a connecting link between the Apodal Malacopterygians and the Blennidae.

Like the Blennies, this genus has neither ccal appendages nor air-bladder. The intestinal canal is rather ample, with a few coils, but of tolerably equal dimensions throughout.

There is but one species of this new genus in the collection, which is from the Archipelago of Chiloe. The detailed description of it is as follows:




Form. Very much elongated, subcylindric anteriorly, compressed and ensiform behind. Greatest depth in the region of the pectorals, and about one-tenth of the entire length. Head, measured to the extreme point of the gill-cover, five and a half times in the same. The head is rather larger than any part of the body, its depth and thickness being equal, and each a trifle less than the depth of the body. Crown and forehead a little flattened, whence the profile descends in a curve before the eyes. Snout blunt and rounded, projecting, both in front and at the sides, beyond the lower jaw. Gape wide, and reaching to beneath the middle of the eye. Intermaxillary somewhat protractile at the sides, but not in front; shorter than the maxillary, with a considerable intervention of membrane between the extremities of the two bones, which are not unit ed posteriorly, excepting by the membrane just mentioned. Maxillary long, rather slender, of nearly uniform breadth and thickness throughout, retiring in part beneath the suborbital, and reaching backwards to a vertical from the posterior part of the orbit. Intermaxillary with a single row of small, pointed, subconical, slightly curved teeth; in front of these, and quite at the anterior extremity of the jaw, two strong, hooked, regular canines:3 the teeth in the row rather wide asunder, and set a little irregularly, about thirty in number. In the lower jaw, teeth few in number, scarcely more than eight or ten in front, rather stronger than the intermaxillary series, followed by a moderate canine on each side, these last smaller than the ones above: at the sides of the lower jaw, beyond the canines, scarcely more than one or two small teeth (possibly others are fallen). A small cluster of three or four teeth on the fore part of the vomer, like those in front of the lower jaw, and a row on each palatine. Pharynx also armed with strong teeth; but the tongue, which is free at the tip, and rounded, smooth. Eyes large and prominent, and elevated rather above the line of the profile: their diameter one-fourth the length of the head; their distance from the end of the snout one diameter; the interocular space reduced to a narrow channel, and scarcely equalling half a diameter.

Opercle of a triangular form; subopercle lanceolate, projecting further than the opercle, and passing upwards and backwards to form the terminating angle of the gill-cover. Gill-opening of very moderate extent; the branchial membrane fastened down underneath, with five rays. Skin smooth and naked, loose, and probably very mucous in the living fish. Apparently no lateral line. The edges of both jaws curiously fringed each with a row of tubipores, or cutaneous appendages in the form of tubes, having pores at their terminal extremities for the exudation of mucus. The row on the upper jaw is continued along the margin of the suborbital on to the cheek; that on the lower is carried upwards to form an edging to the preopercle. There is also one of these tubipores at each nostril, another behind each eye, and a third on each side of the nape.

The dorsal commences above the terminating angle of the gill-cover, and extends the whole length of the body: its height nearly uniform throughout, equalling half the depth: the rays slender; all articulated, except the third, which is spinous, and shorter than those which precede and follow it; mostly simple, but some of the posterior ones slightly divided at their tips. Vent situate beneath the termination of the first quarter of the dorsal. The anal begins immediately behind it, and, like the dorsal, is carried on to the end of the body, to unite with it in forming a pointed caudal; all the rays soft and delicate. Pectorals rather pointed, with the middle rays longest, and about two-thirds the length of the head. Ventrals very minute and narrow, of only three rays, and appearing like one filament, about one-third the length of the pectorals; attached in front of the pectorals, and nearly in a line with the gill-opening.

3One of these is gone in this speciment, but the socket in which it was implanted is obvious

B. 5; D. about 80; A. about 60; C. about 15; P. 16; V. 3

Length 5 inc. 9 lin.

Colour. Not noticed in the recent state. In spirits it is nearly colourless, with the exception of a dark bluish line along the base of the dorsal; upper part of the head, and nape, also stained with the same dark tint.

Habitat, Archipelago of Chiloe.

This species was taken by Mr. Darwin under stones. There is but one specimen in the collection, and it would be very desirable to see others, in order to ascertain whether the circumstance of the third dorsal ray alone being spinous (those that precede as well as follow being articulated), is merely accidental in the one above described, or really characteristic of the species. If the later is an anomaly - a single spine thus occurring in the middle of a soft fin - of which I know no other example.



Corpus elongatum, compressum, nudum, alepidotum, prosissimum. Rostrum breve, obtusum. Dentes acuti, subconici, in maxillâ superiore uniseriati, in inferiore bi-veltri-seriati; supra canini duo fortiores, antici, et prae serie exstantes: in vomere dentes duo vel tres acuti, quorum unus fortis; in utroque palatino uniseriati. Lingua laevis. Oculi parvi. Apertura branchialis arctissima, membranâ sex-radiatâ. Maxillarum margines poris conspicuis longitudinaliter dispositis, simplicibus, haud in tubos productis. Pinnae ventrales, dorsali et analis, ut in genere praecedenti

This genus differs from Iluocoetes , in having the head and eyes smaller, the snout scarcely at all produced, the teeth in front of the lower jaw in two or three rows, and especially in the contracted gill-opening, which is reduced to a small hole, relatively not much larger than in the eels, and in the branchial membrane having six rays. It wants also the tubal cutaneous appendages on the jaws and cheeks, in the place of which are rows of simple pores. It may be added that the whole skin is every where studded with pores; smaller, however, than those which form the maxillary series. The fins are similar, including the minute ventrals; but the tail and caudal are more rounded, and the membrane investing the rays of the dorsal and anal is more fleshy, so as hardly to allow of the rays being counted.

This genus is yet more eel-like, and more malacopterygian in general appearance than the last, serving to make the passage from the Blennidae to the apodal division of the soft-finned fishes, still more gradual and evident. Mr. Darwin obtained it at the Falkland Islands. There is but one species in the collection referable to it.





Form. Still more elongated than the Iluocoetes fimbriatus , but not tapering so much to a point posteriorly, the tail being blunter and more rounded. Greatest depth about one-eleventh of the entire length: head one-seventh. Head more compressed, its thickness being only three-fourths of its depth. Nape rather more elevated, and the profile more sloping, its descent commencing at a more backward point. Snout equally short and rounded, but much less projecting over the lower jaw. Gape, intermaxillary, and maxillary, similar: also the teeth; only the pair of canines above, standing in front of the series, are smaller; and below, the teeth in front are in two or more rows. On the fore part of the vomer is one strong tooth, and apparently one or two other smaller teeth with it; on each palatine a row, one or two of the anterior ones being stronger than the others. Eyes very much smaller; their diameter scarcely more than one-seventh the length of the head; not sufficiently high in the cheeks to cut the line of the profile: interocular space slightly convex.

Pieces of the gill-cover on the whole similar, but the branchial aperture much smaller, the fissure not descending below the level of the upper part of the pectoral: branchial membrane with six rays. Skin naked, and thickly studded all over with mucous pores. Also some very large and conspicuous pores in rows on the jaws and cheeks, but not elevated into cutaneous tubes, excepting the nostrils, which are tubular.

Dorsal and anal with all the rays articulated, and the greater part of them simple, but some toward the tail a little branched at their tips. Caudal not so pointed as in Iluocoetes. Pectorals and ventrals similar, but the latter a trifle longer and broader in proportion.

Length 4 inc. 7 lines

Colour. (In spirits.) Brown, with the jaws, under part of the head, and lower half of the cheeks, whitish; also a whitish fascia extending longitudinally from behind each eye to the upper angle of the opercle.

A second specimen in the collection is smaller than the above, measuring only two inches and a half in length. It is in bad condition, but does not appear to differ, except in having the anterior canines above but very little developed.

Habitat, Falkland Islands.

Both individuals of this species were taken by Mr. Darwin in the Falkland Islands. ‘Caught amongst kelp.’ - D.



Acanthoclinus fuscus, 92. Pl. XVIII, f. 2

Balistes aculeatus, 155
Acanthurus humeralis, 76 Balistes vetula, 155
Acanthurus triostegus, 75 Batrachus porosissimus, 99
Achirus lineatus, 139

Blennechis fasciatus, 84. Pl. XVII, f. 1

Agriopus hispidus, 38, 163. Pl. VII, f. 2

Blennechis ornatus, 85, Pl. XVII, f. 2
Aleuteres maculosus, 156 Blennius palmicornis, 83
Aleuteres velutinus, 157  
Alosa pectinata, 135. Pl. XXV Callichthys paleatus, 113
Anguilla australis, 142 Caranx declivis, 68. Pl. XIV
Aphritis porosus, 162 Caranx georgianus, 71

Aphritis undulatus, 160. Pl. XXIX, f. 1

Caranx torvus, 69. Pl. XV
Apistus _____?, 163 Chaetodon setifer, 61

Aplochiton taeniatus, 132. Pl. XXIV, f. 2

Cheilio ramosus, 102
Aplochiton zebra, 131. Pl. XXIV, f. 1 Chromis facetus, 104
Aplodactylus punctatus, 15 Chrysophrys taurina, 56. Pl. XII
Arripis georgianus, 14 Clinus crinitis, 90. Pl. XVIII, f. 1
Aspidophorus chiloensis, 30. Pl. VII, f. 1 Clupea arcuata, 134
Atherina argentinensis, 77 Clupea fuegensis, 133
Atherina incisa, 79. Pl. XVI, f. 2 Clupea sagax, 134
Atherina microlepidota, 78. Pl. XVI, f. 1 Conger punctus, 143
  Corvina adusta, 42
Dajaus diemensis, 82 Cossyphus darwinii, 100. Pl. XX
Diacope marginata, 12  
Diodon antennatus, 151 Echeneis remora, 142
Diodon nycthemerus, 150 Eleotris gobioides, 98
Diodon rivulatus, 150 Engraulis ringens, 136
Dules auriga, 16 Exocoetus exsiliens, 122
Dules leuciscus, 17  
Gerres gula, 58 Heliases crusma, 54
Gerres oyena, 59 Helotes octolineatus, 18
Gobiesox marmoratus, 140. Pl. XXVII, f. 1 Hippoglossus kingii, 138. Pl. XXVI
Gobiesox poecilophthalmos, 141, Pl. XXVII, f. 2 Hydrocyon hepsetus, 128
Gobius lineatus, 95. Pl. XIX, f. 2  
Gobius ophicephalus, 97. Pl. XIX, f. 3 Iluocoetes fimbriatus, 166. Pl. XXIX, f. 2
Latilus jugularis, 51 Mesites alpinus, 121
Latilus princeps, 52, Pl. XI Mesites attenuatus, 121. Pl. XXII, f.
Lebias lineata, 116. Pl. XXII, f. 2 Mesites maculatus, 119. Pl. XXII, f. 5
Lebias multidentata, 117. Pl. XXII, f. 3 Mugil liza, 80
  Mugil liza?, 81
Ostracion punctatus, 158 Muraena lentiginosa, 143
Otolithus analis, 164 Muraena ocellata, 145
Otolithus guatucupa, 41 Muraena ocellata?, 146
  Myxine australis, 159
Paropsis signata, 66. Pl. XIII  
Perca laevis, 1. Pl. I Rhombus ___?, 139
Percophis brasilianus, 23  
Phucocoetes latitans, 168, Pl. XXIX, f. 3 Salarias atlanticus, 86
Pimelodus exsudans, 111 Salarias vomerinus, 88. Pl. XVII, f. 3
Pimelodus gracilis, 110 Salarias quadricornis, 87
Pinguipes chilensis, 22 Scarus chlorodon, 105. Pl. XXI
Pinguipes fasciatus, 20. Pl. V Scarus globiceps, 106
Plagusia fasciatus?, 140 Scarus lepidus, 108
Platessa orbignyana, 137 Scarus _____?, 109
Platessa orbignyana?,138 Scorpaena histrio, 35. Pl. VIII
Platycephalus inops, 33 Sebastes oculata, 37
Plectropoma patachonica, 11 Seriola bipinnulata, 72
Poecilia decem-maculata, 115. Pl. XXII, f. 1 Serranus albomaculatus, 3. Pl. II
Poecilia unimaculata, 114 Serranus aspersus, 6
Prionodes fasciatus, 47, 164. Pl. IX, f. 1 Serranus goreensis, 5
Prionotus miles, 29. Pl. VI Serranus labriformis, 8. Pl. III
Prionotus punctatus, 28 Serranus olfax, 9. Pl. IV
Pristipoma cantharinum, 49. Pl. X Stegastes imbricatus, 63, 165. Pl. IX, f. 2
Psenes ___?, 73 Stromateus maculatus, 74
  Syngnathus acicularis, 147. Pl. XXVII, f. 3
Tetragonopterus abramis, 123. Pl. XXIII, f. 1 Syngnathus conspicillatus, 147. Pl. XXVII, f. 4
Tetragonopterus interruptus, 127. Pl. XXIII, f. 4 Syngnathus crinitus, 148. Pl. XXVII, f. 5
Tetragonopterus rutilus, 125. Pl. XXIII, f. 2  
Tetragonopterus scabripinnis, 125. Pl. XXIII, f. 3 Umbrina arenata, 44
Tetragonopterus taeniatus, 126 Umbrina ophicephala, 45
Tetrodon aerostaticus, 152 Upeneus flavolineatus, 24
Tetrodon angusticeps, 154, Pl. XXVIII
Upeneus prayensis, 26
Tetrodon annulatus, 153 Upeneus trifasciatus, 25
Tetrodon implutus, 152  
Trigla kumu, 27  
Tripterygion capito, 94. Pl. XIX, f. 1  



List of the expanded references explicitly or implicitly cited by Jenyns.

Bennett, Edward Turner. 1832. Characters of some new species of fishes, collected by Mr. Cuming. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (Part 2): 4-5.

Bennett, J.W., 1828. A selection of rare and curious fishes found upon the coast of Ceylon: from drawings made in that island, and coloured from life. Private Printing. London. 30 p.

Bloch, Marcus Eliezer and Joseph Gottlob Schneider. 1801. M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae iconibus CX illustratum. Post obitum auctoris opus inchoatum absolvit, correxit, interpolavit Jo. Gottlob Schneider, Saxo. Berolini Sumtibus Austoris Impressum et Bibliopolio Sanderiano Commissum. p. i-lx + 1-584.

[“M.E. Bloch’s System of Ichthyology, illustrated by 110 figures. An unfinished work, completed, corrected and improved after the author’s death by Johann Gottlob Schneider, of Saxony. Printed in Berlin at the author’s expense and bound by the Sander Book Company.”]

Cuvier, Georges. 1815. Observations et recherches critiques sur différents poissons de la Méditerrannée, et à leur occasion sur des poissons d'autres mers, plus ou moins liés avec eux. [Second through fourth parts as "Suite des observations et recherches critiques." Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 226-241, 312-330, 353-363, 451-466].

Cuvier, George. 1818. Sur les diodons, vulgairement orbes-épineux. Mémoires du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle. 4: 121-138, plates 6-7.

Cuvier, George. 1816 and 1829. Le Règne Animal distribué d'après son organisation pour servir de base à l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction à l'anatomie comparée. Les reptiles, les poissons, les mollusques et les annélides. Chez D’Eterville et chez Crochard, Libraires, Paris. Vol. 2, xviii + 532 p. [pdf of first (1816) edition].

[“The animal kingdom, arranged in conformity to its organization, to serve as basis for natural history and introduction to comparative anatomy;” 1st ed. 1816, 2nd ed. 1829; English edition: Griffith, Edward and Charles Hamilton Smith. 1834. The class Pisces, with supplementary additions London, G.B. Whittaker. 680 p. Jenyns appears to have used the original French version of the 2nd edition and not its English translation.]

Cuvier, Georges and Achilles Valenciennes. 1828. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome Premier. Livre deuxième. Idée générale de la nature et de l’organisation des poissons. Vol. 1. Levrault, Paris. xvi + 573 p.

Cuvier, Georges and Achilles Valenciennes. 1828. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome second. Livre troisième. Des poissons de la famille des Perches ou des Percoïdes. Vol. 2. Levrault, Paris. xxi + 490 p.

Cuvier, Georges and Achilles Valenciennes. 1829. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome troisième. Suite du livre troisième. Des poissons de la famille des Perches ou des Percoïdes. Vol. 3. Levrault, Paris. xxviii + 500 p.

Cuvier, Georges and Achilles Valenciennes. 1829. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome quatrième. Livre quatrième. Des acanthoptérygiens à joue cuirassée. Levrault, Paris. Vol. 4, xxvi + 518 p.

[“On Acanthopterygians with armoured cheeks;”]

Cuvier, Georges and Achilles Valenciennes. 1830a. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome cinquième. Livre cinquème. Partie I. Des Sparoïdes. Vol. 5. Levrault, Paris. xxviii + 499 p.

Cuvier, Georges and Achilles Valenciennes. 1830b. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome sixième. Livre sixième. Partie I. Des Sparoïdes; Partie II. Des Ménides. Vol. 6. Levrault, Paris. xxiv + 559 p.

Cuvier, Georges and Achille Valenciennes. 1831. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome septième. Livre septième. Des Squamipennes. Livre huitième. Des poissons à pharyngiens labyrinthiformes. Vol. 7. Levrault, Paris. xxix + 531 p.

Cuvier, Georges and Achille Valenciennes. 1832. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome huitième. Livre neuvième. Des Scombéroïdes. Vol. 8. Levrault, Paris. xix + 509 p.

Cuvier, Georges and Achille Valenciennes. 1833. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome neuvième. Suite du livre neuvième. Des Scombéroïdes. Vol. 9. Levrault, Paris. xxix + 512 p.

Cuvier, Georges and Achille Valenciennes. 1835. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome dixième. Suite du livre neuvième. Scombéroïdes. Livre dixième. De la famille des Teuthyes. Livre onzième. De la famille des Taenioïdes. Livre douzième. Des Athérines. Vol. 10. Levrault, Paris. i-xxiv + 1-482 + 2 pp.

Cuvier, Georges and Achille Valenciennes. 1836. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome onzième. Livre treizième. De la famille des Mugiloïdes. Livre quatorzième. De la famille des Gobioïdes. Vol. 11. Levrault, Paris. xx + 506 p.

Cuvier, Georges and Achille Valenciennes. 1837. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome douzième. Suite du livre quatorzième. Gobioïdes. Livre quinzième. Acanthoptérygiens à pectorales pédiculées. Vol. 12. Levrault, Paris. xxiv + 507 p.

Cuvier, Georges and Achille Valenciennes. 1840a. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome quatorzième. Suite du livre seizième. Labroïdes. Livre dix-septième. Des Malacoptérygiens. Vol. 14. Pitois-Levrault, Paris. xxii + 464 p.

Cuvier, Georges and Achille Valenciennes. 1840b. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome quinzième. Suite du livre dix-septième. Siluroïdes. Vol. 15. Pitois, Paris. xxxi + 540 p.

Darwin, Charles. 1839. Journal of researches into the geology and natural history of the various countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle, under the command of Captain FitzRoy, R.N. from 1832-1836. Henry Colburn. London. 637 p.

[Here is the text Jenyns was referring to: “… One day I was amused by watching the habits of a Diodon, which was caught swimming near the shore. This fish is well known to possess the singular power of distending itself into a nearly spherical form. After having been taken out of water for a short time, and then again immersed in it, a considerable quantity of both water and air was absorbed by the mouth, and perhaps likewise by the branchial apertures.

This process is effected by two methods; the air is swallowed, and is then forced into the cavity of the body, its return being prevented by a muscular contraction which is externally visible; but the water, I observed, entered in a stream through the mouth, which was wide open and motionless: this latter action must, therefore, depend on suction. The skin about the abdomen is much looser than that of the back; hence, during the inflation, the lower surface becomes far more distended than the upper; and the fish, in consequence, floats with its back downwards. Cuvier doubts whether the Diodon, in this position, is able to swim; but not only can it thus move forward in a straight line, but likewise it can turn round to either side. This latter movement is effected solely by the aid of the pectoral fins; the tail being collapsed, and not used. From the body being buoyed up with so much air, the branchial openings were out of the water; but a stream drawn in by the mouth, constantly flowed through them.

The fish, having remained in this distended state for a short time, generally expelled the air and water with considerable force from the branchial apertures and mouth. It could emit, at will, a certain portion of the water; and it appears, therefore, probable, that this fluid is taken in partly for the sake of regulating its specific gravity. This diodon possessed several means of defence. It could give a severe bite, and could eject water from its mouth to some distance, at the same time it made a curious noise by the movement of its jaws. By the inflation of its body, the papillæ, with which the skin is covered, became erect and pointed. But the most curious circumstance was, that it emitted from the skin of its belly, when handled, a most beautiful carmine red and fibrous secretion, which stained ivory and paper in so permanent a manner, that the tint is retained with all its brightness to the present day. I am quite ignorant of the nature and use of this secretion.” (Noted in Bahia, or San Salvador, Brazil, February 20th, 1832)]

Dumon d’Urville, Jules. 1841-1854. Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l’Océanie, sur les corvettes l’Astrolabe et la Zélée … exécuté par ordre du roi pendant les années 1837, 1838, 1839 et 1840. Atlas Zoologique. 2 Volumes. 42 f. de pl. tout en cartes. Gide, Paris.

Duperrey, Louis Isidore. 1826-1830. Voyage autour du monde, exécuté par ordre du roi, sur la corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825,… publié sous les auspices de son excellence mgr le cte de Chabrol, ministre de la marine et des colonies, par m. L.I. Duperrey … Zoologie. 2 vols. par Lesson et Garnot [et F.-E. Guérin-Méneville]. A. Bertrand, Paris.

Freycinet, Louis Claude Desaulses de. 1826. Voyage autour du monde … exécuté sur les corvettes de Sa Majesté, l’Uranie et la Physicienne, pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819 et 1820 … publié par M. Louis de Freycinet … Zoologie. Pillet aîné, Paris.

Humboldt, Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von and Achille Valenciennes. 1833. Recherches sur les Poissons fluviatiles de l’Amérique Equinoxiale. p. 145-216, pl. XLV-LII. In: A. von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland (eds.) Voyage aux régions équinoxiales du Nouveau Continent fait en 1799, 1800, 1801, 1803 et 1804. Vol. 2. Paris. [pdf ]

[Jenyns uses for Volume II of Humboldt and Bonpland’s work a title which reads in full “Recueil d’observation de zoologie et d’anatomie comparée, faites dans l’Océan Atlantique, dans l’intérieur de nouveau continent et dans la Mer du Sud pendant les années 17991803 , » but which appears to have been used only for the first volume].

Lacepède, Bernard Germain Etienne de. 1798. Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. Vol. 1. Furne et Jouvet, Paris. [ pdf ].

[After the French Revolution, Lacepède became ‘citoyen La Cépède,’ which was more conducive to keeping one’s head on, and which some taxononomists insist is the way his name should be written, but I could force myself to do it in this book.]

Lay, G. T. and E. T. Bennett. 1839. Fishes. p. 41-75, pls. 15-23. In: The Zoology of Captain Beechey's voyage, compiled from the collections and notes made by Captain Beechey, the officers and naturalist of the expedition, during a voyage to the Pacific and Behring's straits performed in his majesty's ship Blossom, under the command of Captain F.W. Beechey, in the years 1825, 26, 27, and 28. London.

Lesson, René-Primevère. 1830. Poissons. p. 66-238. In: Louis Isidore Dupperrey (ed.) Voyage autour du monde….sur la corvette de sa Majesté La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825….Zoologie . Vol. 2. pt 1; Atlas, pls. 1-38. [pdf ].

[Often cited as ‘Lesson & Garnot’, the latter referring to Prosper Garnot, Chief surgeon on ‘La Coquille’].

Lowe, Richard Thomas. 1839. A supplement to a synopsis of the fishes of Madeira. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 7: 76-92.

Orbigny, Alcide de. 1844. Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale... exécuté pendant les années 1826, 1827, 1828, 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832 et 1833. Tome troisième. 1ère partie, [Planches]. Part 1. Vol. 3. P. Bertrand, Paris and Veuve Levrault, Strasbourg. [72] f. de pl. : ill. [pdf ].

Quoy, Jean René Constant and Joseph Paul Gaimard. 1824-1825. Description des poissons, p. 192-401. In : Louis Claude Desaulses de Freycinet (ed.) Voyage autour du monde … executé sur les corvettes de Sa Majesté l'Uranie et la Physicienne pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819 et 1820 …. Chapter IX. Zoologie. Pillet aîné, Paris. [p. 1328 in 1824; 329-616 in 1825].

Richardson, John. 1836. The Fish. In: Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the zoology of the northern parts of British America: containing descriptions of the objects of natural history collected on the late northern land expeditions, under the command of Sir John Franklin, R.N. Fauna Boreali-Americana i-xv + 1-327

Richardson, John. 1840. Description of a collection of fishes made at Port Arthur in Van Diemen's Land. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. (pt 8): 25-30.

Richardson, John. 1841. On some new or little known fishes from the Australian seas. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. (pt 9): 21-22.

Rüppel, Wilhelm Peter Eduard Simon 1826-1828. Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Afrika. Zoologie: Fische des Rothen Meeres. 4 Volumes. Frankfurt-am-Main. 119 plates, folio.

[“Atlas of the voyage to northern Africa. Zoology: Fishes of the Red Sea”]

Schneider, Joseph Gottlob. 1801. M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae iconibus CX illustratum. Post obitum auctoris opus inchoatum absolvit, correxit, interpolavit Jo.

Gottlob Schneider, Saxo. Berolini Sumtibus Austoris Impressum et Bibliopolio Sanderiano Commissum. p. i-lx + 1-584.

[“Marcus Eliezer and M.E. Bloch’s System of Ichthyology, illustrated by 110 figures. An unfinished work, completed, corrected and improved after the author’s death by Johann Gottlob Schneider, of Saxony. Printed in Berlin at the author’s expense and bound by the Sander Book Company.” Usually cited as “Bloch and Schneider”]

Seba, Albertus. 1734-1765. Locupletissimi rerum naturalium thesauri accurata descriptio, et iconibus artificiosissimis expressio, per universam physiees historiam. Opus, cui, in hoc rerum genere, nullum par exstitit. Ex toto terrarum orbe collegit, digessit, descripsit, et de pingendum curavit Albertus Seba. 4 Volumes. Janssonio-Waesbergios. Amsterdam. [4 v. front., 449 pl.].

Shaw, George and F.P. Nodder. 1790-1813. The Naturalist’s Miscellany, or colored figures of natural objects; drawn and described … from nature. 24 Volumes. London.

Sloane, Hans Sir. 1707-1725. A voyage to the islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S. Christophers and Jamaica : with the natural history of the herbs and trees, four-footed beasts, fishes, birds, insects, reptiles, &c. of the last of those islands : to which is prefix'd ... an account of the inhabitants, air, waters, diseases, trade, &c. of that place, with some relations concerning the neighbouring continent and islands of America. 2 Volumes. London [printed by B. M. for the author].

Smith, Andrew. 1849. Illustration of the Zoology of South Africa; consisting chiefly of figures and descriptions of the objects of natural history collected during an expedition into the interior of south Africa in 1834-36. 5 Volumes. Vol. iv Pisces, with 31 col. plates. [ pdf ].

Spix, Johann Baptist von and Louis Agassiz. 1829-1831. Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam annis MDCCCXVII-MDCCCXX jussu et auspiciis Maximiliani Josephi I. Bavariae regis augustissimi peracto collecit et pingendos curavit Dr J. B. de Spix, […], digessit, descripsit et observationibus anatomicis illiustravit Dr. L. Agassiz. Monachii. Part 1: i-xvi + i-ii + 1-82, Pls. 1-48. [ pdf].

[“A selection of genera and species of fishes from travels in Brazil in the years 1817-1820, by the order and under the auspices of Maximilian Joseph I, the most august King of Bavaria, which were collected and painted for Dr. J. B. von Spix. […], with an account, descriptions and anatomical illustrations by Dr. L. Agassiz. Munich;”]

Swainson, William. 1838-1839. The natural history of fishes, amphibians & reptiles, or monocardian animals. Vol. II. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & Longmans. 2 Volumes. London.

Syme, Patrick. 1821. Werner's Nomenclature of Colours, With Additions, Arranged so as to Render it highly Useful to the Arts and Sciences, particularly Zoology, Botany, Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Morbid Anatomy. Annexed to which are examples selected from well-known objects in the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms. William Blackwood, Edinburgh & T. Cadell, London. 47 p. + 13 colour plates.

[This book, the second edition of a work first published in 1814 by a “Flower-Painter” based in Edinburgh, and worked for “the Wernerian and Caledonian Horticultural Societies,” covers 110 named “tints,” and thus expands on the 79 names and descriptions originally published by Abraham Werner (e.g. “Chocolate red, is veinous blood red mixed with a little brownish red”). Moreover, Syme included in his book 110 small (1.2 cm2) color panels, glued onto the appropriate plates (“Whites,” “Greys,” “Blacks,” etc.), along with examples under columns labelled “ANIMAL,” “VEGETABLE,” and MINERAL.”(Most animal example are parts of birds and insect bodies; the only fish example is “Reddish orange,” as occur in “Gold Fish lustre abstracted.” Some colours are not what one would expect, and “Broccoli brown” is not brown, besides having no VEGETABLE example; go figure). This small (23 x 14 x 1 cm) book (which must have been expensive, given its handmade color panels) is easily carried in the field, and hence Charles Darwin’s ability to use it to standardize the colour names he used, most of which Jenyns incorporated in his descriptions of Darwin’s fishes. Darwin’s copy of this book, much used during the voyage of the Beagle, is kept at Down House.]

Valenciennes, Achille. 1847. Catalogue des principales espèces de poissons, rapportées de l'Amérique méridionale. Vol. 5 (pt 2): 1-11. In: Orbigny, Alcide Charles Victor Dessalines d’ (ed.). 1834-1847. Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale (le Brésil, la République orientale de l’Uruguay, la République Argentine, la Patagonie, la République du Chili, la République de Bolivia, la République du Pérou), executé pendant les années 1826, 1827, … et 1833. 9 Volumes. P. Bertrand, Paris et Veuve Levrault, Strasbourg. [pdf]

[“Voyage to South America (Brazil, Uruguay, …), performed during the years 1826-1833.” Jenyns mention d’Orbigny’s work being “now in course of publication” (Fish, p. x)]