INTRODUCTION
FAMILY: PERCIDAE

FAMILY: MULLIDAE
FAMILY: TRIGLIDAE
FAMILY: COTTIDAE
FAMILY: SCORPAENIDAE
FAMILY: SCIAENIDAE

FAMILY: SPARIDAE
FAMILY: SCOMBRIDAE
FAMILY: TEUTHYDIDAE
FAMILY: ATHERINIDAE
FAMILY: MUGILIDAE
FAMILY: BLENNIDAE
FAMILY: GOBIDAE
FAMILY: LOPHIDAE
FAMILY: LABRIDAE
FAMILY: SILURIDAE
FAMILY: CYPRINIDAE
FAMILY: ESOCIDAE
FAMILY: SALMONIDAE
FAMILY: CLUPEIDAE
FAMILY: PLEURONECTIDAE
FAMILY: CYCLOPTERIDAE
FAMILY: ECHENEIDIDAE
FAMILY: ANGUILLIDAE
FAMILY: SYNGNATHIDAE
FAMILY: TETRODONTIDAE
FAMILY: BALISTIDAE
FAMILY: PETROMYZONIDAE
FAMILY: PERCIDAE
FAMILY: BLENNIDAE
INDEX
BIBLIOGRAPHY


 

THE

ZOOLOGY

OF

THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S. BEAGLE,

UNDER THE COMMAND OF CAPTAIN FITZROY, R.N.


DURING THE YEARS

1832 TO 1836

PUBLISHED WITH THE APPROVAL OF

THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF HER MAJESTY TREASURY


Edited and Superintendend by

CHARLES DARWN, ESQ. M.A. F.R.S. F.G.S. eRC.

NATURALIST TO THE EXPEDITION.

 

PART IV.

F I S H,

by

THE REV. LEONARD JENYNS, M.A., F.L.S., &c.

LONDON:

PUBLISHED BY SMITH,ELDER, AND CO. 65, CORNHILL

MDCCCXLII


 

 

Foreword to the Online Edition of Jenyns’ Fish

Daniel Pauly

The interest that Charles Darwin (CD) had in corals, barnacles, earthworms, and orchids is well documented and, indeed, his work led to monographs now essential to the biologists working on these groups.

Not so for fishes: although he was interested in this group, as attested by numerous observations scattered throughout his published work, and his notebooks and correspondence, CD never authored any book or paper devoted solely, or even mainly to fishes. Thus, ichthyologists and Darwin scholars interested in CD’s treatment of this most speciose group among the vertebrates until now had to contend themselves with Fish, which describes the fishes collected by CD during the voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836), but which was edited, rather than authored by CD.

The publication of my book on Darwin’s Fishes, which assembles and comments on all that CD wrote on fish, establish that CD contributed substantially to ichthyology. If successful, Darwin’s Fishes should heighten interest in Fish, and in the Reverend Leonard Jenyns, its author. Hence this online edition.

CD’s input into Fish was substantial: he sampled all the fish reported upon by Jenyns, who also had access to all of his field notes (notably on live colors and sampling sites). Further, it is CD who “superintendented” the publication of Fish, as amply documented in his correspondence. Still it is Jenyns who identified and/or named CD’s specimens and we shall briefly meet the man before we discuss his work.

Leonard Jenyns was born in London in 1800, the son of George Leonard Jenyns, vicar of Swaffham Prior, Cambridgeshire. In 1828, he became vicar of Swaffham Bulbeck, also in Cambridgeshire. By the mid 1830s, a substantial publication record had established his reputation as a naturalist, one of two reasons why CD invited him, in 1836, to document the collection of fish he had assembled during the voyage of the Beagle. The second reason was friendship: Jenyns’ sister Harriet had married, in 1823, J.S. Henslow, CD’s mentor and friend, and this had provided, long before CD went on the Beagle, numerous opportunities for CD and Jenyns to meet, and to gradually appreciate each other.

However, CD’s relationship with Jenyn’s was strained at first, CD finding Jenyns “selfish and illiberal”- apparently because he had refused to exchange some of his specimens with the youthful Darwin, then engrossed in collecting insects. CD then competed with Jenyns (“I think I beat Jenyns at Colymbetes” [...] “I am glad of it if it is merely to spite Mr Jenyns”). Finally, things settled and CD could report to his cousin William Darwin Fox: “I have seen lots of him lately, & the more I see the more I like him.” (The quotes are from CD’s correspondence, and are fully documented in Darwin’s Fishes.)

In 1849, Jenyns moved to the Isle of Wright, then, shortly thereafter to Swainswick, near Bath, where he founded the Bath Natural History Society. He remained very active, his publications reflecting wide-ranging interests, all much appreciated by CD. In 1887, he published an autobiography (reprinted in 1889), and passed away in 1893.

Returning to Fish, we should note that the first edition was published in four parts, over a period of 27 months, a fact of great importance to taxonomists. The full reference is thus as follows:

Jenyns, L. 1840-42. Part IV Fish In: The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, during the years 1832 to 1836. Edited and superintendented by Charles Darwin. Smith, Elder and Co. Cronhill, London (in 4 parts): i-xvi + 1-172 p. Plates 1-29 [p. 1-32: Jan. 1840; p. 33-64: June 1840; p. 65-96: April 1841; p. 97-172: April 1842].

Fish is still in print, in two editions:

  1. In volume six of the 29-volume edition of The Works of Charles Darwin, edited by P.H. Barrett and R.B. Freeman, Pickering and Chatto , London, 253 p., and
  2. In volume III of The Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle during the years 1832-1836. Edited by Charles Darwin. Facsimile Reprint, 1980, Nova Pacifica Publishing, Wellington, New Zealand.

Also, Fish is included on Pete Goldie’s Darwin CD-ROM (2nd edition; Lightbinders Inc., San Francisco, 1997), based on electronic files I supplied, and which were also used for this online edition.

The species listed in Jenyns’ Fish represent the bulk of what I call ‘Darwin’s fishes’, consisting of the species which CD collected during the voyage of the Beagle, and which Jenyns described, the species which CD wrote about, either in his formal publications, or in his notebooks, letters or marginalia, and all eponymous fish species, i.e., named after CD. All of these species are presented, with updated names where necessary, in Darwin’s Fishes.

This online edition of Jenyns’ Fish also provided opportunities for some updating. This was done by linking his species names with the now valid names of these species in FishBase, and correspondingly for families (note that many of Jenyns’ assignments to families have changed, even when the species names have not). As well, Jenyns’ sometimes obscure citations to the literature are all expanded upon, and where available, linked to sites from which the reference in question can be downloaded.

Finally, I take this opportunity for thanking Ms Sandra Gayosa for creating, in 1994, the file used for this online edition of Fish, Ms Yvette Rizzo for the links to FishBase, Dr. M.L. ‘Deng’ Palomares for expanding and linking the references, and Ms Cindy Young for creating the site where Fish is presented.


 

INTRODUCTION

 

The number of species of Fish described or noticed in the following Part of the Zoology of the Beagle, amount to 137. It is right to observe that, judging from Mr. Darwin's manuscript notes, relating to what he obtained in this department, this is probably not more than half the entire number which he collected. Unfortunately a large portion of the valuable collection sent home by him arrived in this country in too bad condition for examination, and was necessarily rejected.

The localities visited by Mr. Darwin, and at every one of which more or fewer species of fish were obtained, were the Cape Verde Islands - the coast of Brazil, including the mouth of the Plata, together with several inland rivers and streams in that district - the coasts of Patagonia, and the Santa Cruz river - Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands - the Archipelago of Chiloe - the coasts of Chile and Peru - the Galapagos Archipelago Tahiti - New Zealand, King George's Sound in Australia - and, lastly, the Keeling Islands in the Indian Ocean. The great bulk of the species, however, are from the coasts, east and west, of South America.

The particular locality assigned to each species respectively in the following work may be relied upon as correct; pains having been taken by Mr. Darwin to affix a small ticket of tin, with a number stamped upon it, to each specimen, and to enter a note immediately in the manuscript catalogue, having the small number attached. In only three or four instances these tickets were found wanting, on the arrival of the collection in this country.

A considerable portion of the species examined and described are new to science, especially of those collected in South America, and the adjoining Islands and Archipelagos. The new ones are supposed to amount to seventy-five at least, constituting more than half the entire number; and amongst these are apparently seven new genera.

It may be interesting to state more particularly from what localities the new species principally come, and what proportion they bear to the entire number brought from each of those localities. Thus from Brazil about half are considered new; from Patagonia at least half; from Tierra del Fuego, the Falkland Islands, and the Galapagos Archipelago, all are new, without exception; and nearly all from Chiloe, and the coasts of Chile and Peru. Of the species brought from Tahiti, New Holland, and the Indian Ocean, not above one-fourth are new. This might have been anticipated from the better knowledge which we have of the Ichthyology of that quarter of the globe, than of South America.

It is much to be regretted that the portion of the collection which has been lost to science, was obtained in localities most abounding in novelties, judging from that portion of it which has been saved. Thus, not above five or six species will be found noticed in the following work, from Tierra del Fuego, where Mr. Darwin took especial pains to collect all he could, and, judging from his manuscript catalogue, he must probably have obtained between thirty and forty. From the Falkland Islands again, there have been only saved two out of fifteen or sixteen - from the coasts of Chile and Peru, not half the entire number obtained, and not above half from the coasts of Patagonia.

There is also described not above half the species brought from King George's Sound, and the Keeling Islands; but as the Indian and Australian species, or at least the former, have been more frequently brought to Europe than the South American, they are less to be regretted than these last.

It is unfortunate that the whole of the species obtained by Mr. Darwin in the Galapagos Archipelago, amounting to fifteen, have been preserved, and are described in the following pages.

It may now be useful to mention, to what groups principally - first, the entire number of described species belong, and, secondly, that portion of them which are considered new. Both these points will be best judged of from the following table, in which the whole collection is parceled out according to the families.


ACANTHOPTERGYII

Percidae. Entire No. of species 18   whereof new 11   Brought up 45   22
Mulllidae 3         Scombridae 7   3
Triglidae 3     1   Teuthydidae 2    
Cottidae 2     2   Atherinidae 3   2
Scorpaenidae 4     2   Mugilidae 3    
Sclaenidae 10     5   Blennidae 11   7
Sparidae 1     1   Gobidae 3   2
Maenidae 2         Labridae 7   5
Chaetodontidae 2         Lophidae 1    
           
  45     22   Total 82    
            Total, new     41

ix


MALACOPTERYGII

Siluridae. Entire No. of species 3   whereof new 2 Brought up 30   21
Cyprinidae 7   6 Cyclopteridae 2   2
Esocidae 1   Echeneididae 1  
Salmonidae 8   7 Anguillidae 6   2
Clupeidae 5   5 [perhaps more]
Pleuronectidae 6   1
[probably more]
       
30     21 Total   39
Total, new 25

 

LOPHOBRANCHII

Syngnathidae. Entire No. of species 7 whereof new 3
       
PLECTOGNATHI
Tetrodontidae. Entire No. of species 7 whereof new 4
Balistidae 5   1
   
Total 12 Total, new 5
CYCLOSTOMI
Petromyzonidae. Entire No. of species 1 whereof new 1
TOTAL IN THE SEVERAL ORDERS
Acanthopterygii. Entire No. of species 82 whereof new 41
Malacopterygii 39   25
Lophobranchii 3   3
Plectognathii 12   5
Cyclostomi 1   1
   
Grand total 137 Grand total, new 75

 

It appears from the above table that of the entire number of species, three-fifths belong to the Acanthopterygian fishes - rather more than one-fourth tot he Malacopterygian- and about one-eight to the remaining orders united.

In the Acanthopterygians, the new species amount to one-half; in the Malacopterygians, to about two-thirds; in the remainig orders together, to rather more than one-half.

Looking, therefore, to the entire number of species described, the Acanthopterygians prevail; and it is in the same order that there are most new ones: but looking to the proportion, which in each order the new ones bear to the entire number, it is among the Malacopterygians that this proportion will be found highest.

Restricting our view, it will also be seen, in the Malacopterygians, that the new species are relatively most numerous in the fresh-water groups, such as the Siluridae, the Cyprinidae, and Salmonidae, in which three families taken together, they amount to five sixths of the whole. The Clupeidae are an exception, in which all the species are apparently new.

All the species described, belonging to the three families above mentioned, in which thre are so many new, viz. the Siluridae , the Cyprinidae , and Salmonidae , are from South America, and the Falkland Islands, excepting one from New Zealand.

Of the remaining fresh-water species in the collection, three out of five are presumed to be new. One of these is a species of Perca , from the Santa Cruz river, in South Patagonia; the second is a species of Dules, from the river Matavai, in Tahiti; the third is a species of Atherina , from Valparaiso. Perhaps, however, however, this last is not strictly an inland species.

The entire number of fresh-water species in the collection is twenty-three, and the entire number of new ones amongst these is eighteen. The large proportion of these latter is a circumstance in confirmation of a remark which Cuvier has somewhere made, that the fresh-water fishes of foreign countries are much less known and understood than those found in the coasts. It may serve also as a hint to future travellers.

The seven new genera in the collection belong - one to the Sciaenidae, from the Galapagos Archipelago; one to the Scombridae, from North Patagonia; three to the Blennidae, whereof one is from the Archipelago of Chiloe, the second from the Falkland Islands, and the third from New Zealand; one to the Cyprinidae, embracing three species, from South Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, and New Zealand; and, lastly, one to the Salmonidae, embracing two species from the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego respectively.

It has been already mentioned, that all the species obtained by Mr. Darwin in the Galapagos Archipelago have been preserved. As they are likewise all new, and those islands appear to have been scarcely visited by any naturalist previously, it may be interesting to enumerate the several genera to which they belong, and the number of species in each genus respectively.

Species     Families   Order
SERRANUS 3   PERCIDAE  
PRIONOTUS 1   TRIGLIDAE  
SCORPAENA 1   SCORPAENIDAE  

PRIONODES N.G.

1    
PRISTIPOMA 1 SCIAENIDAE ACANTHOPTERYGII
LATILUS 1    
CHRYSOPHRYS 1   SPARIDAE  
GOBIUS 1   GOBIDAE  
COSSYPHUS 1   LABRIDAE  
GOBIESOX 1   CYCLOOPTERIDAE MALACOPTERYGII
MURAENA 1   ANGUILLIDAE  
TETRODON 2   TETRODONTIDAE   PLECTOGNATHI
         
  15        

In making the foregoing estimates, as regards the number of new species brought home by Mr. Darwin, I have been guided almost entirely by my own judgment. The difficulty, however, of ascertaining, in a miscellaneous collection of this nature, brought from various localities, what are really new to science, is very great; and this difficulty is much increased, where an author is situate apart from large public museums to which he might have recourse for comparison. Possibly, therefore, some of those described as new in the following work, may not be so in reality; and, in one instance, as mentioned in the Appendix, this is known to be the case. My excuse, however, must rest upon what has been stated. It is hoped that caution has been generally shown, at least in regard to specimens not in a good state of preservation; and, in several such cases, in which an accurate description was hardly practicable - though they could not be referred to any known species - they are not positively declared new, nor any names imposed upon them whatever.

I have, of course, consulted throughout the invaluable volumes of Cuvier and Valencinnes, so far as they have yet advanced in the subject; and in them it will be found that a few species, brought by Mr. Darwin from South America, and still but little known, had nevertheless been previously obtained from the same country by M. Gay. The zoological atlasses of the three great French voyages by Freycinet , Duperrey and D'Urville have been also carefully looked through; and, in regard particularly to the fish of South America, the works of Humboldt , Spix and Agassiz , and the more recent one, now in course of publication, by M. D'Orbigny.

There is an equal difficulty felt by every naturalist at the present day, in distinguishing species from varieties. And in the case of Fish, residing in a peculiar element, and so much removed from our observation - we are almost at a loss to know, at present, to what extent their characters may be modified by local and accidental causes, or how far we may trust a different geographical position for giving permanence and value to a slight modification of form different from what occurs in the species of our own seas. Still less easy is it to determine the true importance of characters, in instances in which it is only permitted to see a single specimen of the kind, or, at most, very few individuals.

Many mistakes, therefore, are liable to occur, in a work of this nature, arising from the above sources. The only way to prevent their creating any permanent confusion in the science, is to describe all species of which the least doubt is entertained, in such detail, and with such accuracy, that they may not fail of being recognized by any observer, to whom they may occur a second time. They will not then continue to hold a false position in the system, as spurious species. They may not be new, or they may not be species at all - but they will be known; and any mistake which has been committed will be at once rectified - any new name which has been wrongly imposed, immediately degraded to a synonym.

Accordingly I have been careful in this respect; and I have in some instances, given full descriptions, even of species which are certainly not new, but which I did not find described by previous authors with all the detail that was requisite for completely identifying them; or, leaving out what they have noticed, I have added such characters as they have omitted. My main object has been to render all the species, whether rightly named or not, easily recognizable; and, however little the science may be advanced by what is brought forward, to make that advance, so far as it goes, sure.

The method of description, and the model of computing the fin-ray formula, will be found conformable to the plan adopted in the Histoire des Poissons of Cuvier and Valenciennes; a work which, in so many respects, must always serve as a model to labourers in this department of zoology.

The colours, in the great majority of instances, were, fortunately, noticed by Mr. Darwin in the recent state. The nomenclature employed by him for the purpose is that of Patrick Syme; and he informs me, that a comparison was always made with the book in hand, previous to the exact colour in any case being noted. Where I have observed any markings left unnoticed by Mr. Darwin, I have added them myself; and, in most instances, I have given the general disposition of the colours as they appear in spirits, from the circumstance of their being often so much altered by the liquor, and liable to mislead those, who have only the opportunity of seeing them in preserved specimens. This is what Cuvier and Valenciennes have frequently done in their work; and from them I have borrowed the practice.

In a work of this nature, it has not been thought desirable to enter into any discussion of the principles of scientific arrangement, or to effect any change in systems already received, I have taken the groups almost exactly as they stand in the Histoire des Poissons of Cuvier and Valenciennes, or in the Regne Animal of the former; yet there is reason to believe that many parts of their system will be found hereafter to require some modification, especially in regard to families and genera which have for their distinctive character the presence or absence of vomerine or palatine teeth. The small value which is to be attached to such character is pointed out in some instances in the following work, and much dwelt upon.

In conclusion, it may be stated, that the whole of the species in the collection of fish brought home by Mr. Darwin, described in the following pages, have been deposited by him in the Museum of the Philosophical Society of Cambridge. They are mostly in spirit, and, generally speaking, in a good state of preservation; some few, however, are in the state of skins only, and have been mounted.

L. JENYNS

Swaffham Bulbeck,
8 January, 1842


SYSTEMATIC TABLE OF SPECIES
WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE HABITATS


ACANTHOPTERYGII

PERCIDAE  
Perca laevis , Jen. South Patagonia
Serranus albo-maculatus, Jen. Galapagos Archipelago
Serranus Goreenis, Val.? Cape Verde Islands
Serranus aspersus, Jen. Cape Verde Islands
Serranus labriformis , Jen. Galapagos
Serranus olfax , Jen. Galapagos
Plectropoma Patachonica , Jen. North Patagonia
Diacope marginata, Cuv. Keeling Islands
Arripis Georgianus  
Aplodactylus punctatus, Val.  
Dules Auriga , Cuv. et Val. Maldonado
Dules Leuciscus , Jen. Tahiti
Helotes octolineatus , Jen. King George's Sound
Aphritis undulatus , Jen. Archipelago of Chiloe
Aphritis porosus, Jen. Central Patagonia
Pinguipes fasciatus, Jen. North Patagonia
Pinguipes Chilensis, Val. Valparaiso
Percophis Brasilianus, Cuv. North Patagonia
MULLIDAE  

Upeneus flavo-lineatus, Cuv. et Val.
Keeling Islands
Upeneus trifasciatus , Cuv. Tahiti
Upeneus Prayensis , Cuv. et Val.? Cape Verde Islands
TRIGLIDAE  
Trigla Kumu , Less. et Garn. New Zealand
Prionotus punctatus , Cuv. Rio de Janeiro
Prionotus Miles , Jen. Galapagos
COTTIDAE  
Aspidophorus Chiloensis, Jen. Chiloe
Platycephalus inops, Jen. King George's Sound
SCORPAENIDAE  
Scorpaena Histrio , Jen. Galapagos
Sebastes oculata, Val.? Valaparaiso
Agriopus hispidus, Jen. Archipelago of Chiloe
Apistus hispidus? King George's Sound
SCIAENIDAE  
Otolithus Guatucupa , Cuv. et Val. Maldonado
Otolithus analis , Jen. Coast of Peru
Corvina adusta , Agass. Maldonado
Umbrina arenata , Cuv. et Val. North Patagonia
Umbrina ophicephala, Jen. Coquimbo
Prionodes fasciatus, Jen. Galapagos
Pristipoma cantharinum, Jen Galapagos
Latilus jugularis, Val. Valparaiso
Latilus princeps , Val. Galapagos
Heliases Crusma , Val. Valparaiso
SPARIDAE  
Chrysophrys taurina, Jen. Galapagos
MAENIDAE  
Gerres Gula , Cuv. et Val.? Rio de Janeiro
Gerres Oyena , Cuv. et Val.? Keeling Islands
CHAETODONTIDAE  
Chaetodon setifer , Bl. Keeling Islands
Stegastes imbricatus , Jen. Cape Verde Islands
SCOMBRIDAE  
Paropsis signata, Jen. North Patagonia
Caranx declivis, Jen. King George's Sound
Caranx torvus , Jen. Tahiti
Caranx Georgianus, Cuv. et Val. King George's Sound
Seriola bipinnulata, Quoy et Gaim. Keeling Islands
Psenes bipinnulata? South Atlantic Ocean
Stromateus maculatus , Cuv. et Val. Chiloe
TEUTHYDIDAE  
Acanthurus triostegus , Bl. Schn. Keeling Islands
Acanthurus humeralis , Cuv. et Val. Tahiti

ATHERINIDAE
 
Atherina argentinensis, Cuv. et Val.? Maldonado
Atherina microlepidota, Jen. Valparaiso
Atherina incisa , Jen. North Patagonia
MUGILIDAE  
Mugil Liza , Cuv. et Val. North Patagonia
Mugil Liza? Keeling Islands
Dajaus Diemensis, Richards King George's Island
BLENNIDAE  
Blennius palmicornis, Cuv. et Val. Cape Verde Islands
Blennius fasciatus, Jen. Concepcion
Blennechis ornatus, Jen. Coquimbo
Salarias atlanticus , Cuv. et Val. Cape Verde Islands
Salarias quadricornis , Cuv. et Val.? Keeling Islands
Salarias vomerinus , Cuv. et Val.? Cape Verde Islands
Clinus crinitus , Jen. Coquimbo
Acanthoclinus fuscus, Jen. New Zealand
Tripterygion Capito, Jen. New Zealand
Iluocoetes fimbriatus, Jen. Archipelago of Chiloe
Phucocoetes latitans, Jen. Falkland Islands
GOBIDAE  
Gobius lineatus , Jen. Galapagos
Gobius ophicephalus, Jen. Archipelago of Chiloe
Eleotris Gobiodes , Val. New Zealand
LOPHIDAE  
Batrachus porosissimus , Cuv. et Val.? Bahia Blanca
LABRIDAE  
Cossyphus Darwinii, Jen. Galapagos
Cheilio ramosus, Jen. Japan?
Chromis facetus , Jen. Maldonado
Scarus chlorodon, Jen. Keeling Islands
Scarus globiceps, Cuv. et Val. Tahiti
Scarus lepidus , Jen. Tahiti
Scarus lepidus? Keeling Islands

 

MALACOPTERYGII

SILURIDAE  
Pimelodus gracilis , Val.? Rio de Janeiro
Pimelodus exsudans, Jen. Rio de Janeiro?
Callichthys paleatus , Jen.  
CYPRINIDAE  
Poecilia unimaculata, Val. Rio de Janeiro
Poecilia decem-maculata , Jen Maldonado
Lebias lineata , Jen. Maldonado
Lebias multidentata, Jen. Monte Video
Mesites maculatus , Jen. South Patagonia
Mesites alpinus , Jen. Tierra del Fuego
Mesites attenuatus, Jen. New Zealand
ESOCIDAE  
Exocoetus exsiliens , Bl.? Pacific Ocean
SALMONIDAE  
Tetragonopterus Abramis, Jen. Rio Parana, S. America
Tetragonopterus rutilus, Jen. Rio Parana, S. America
Tetragonopterus scabripinnis, Jen. Rio de Janeiro
Tetragonopterus taeniatus, Jen. Rio de Janeiro
Tetragonopterus interruptus, Jen. Maldonado
Hydrocyon Hepsetus, Cuv. Maldonado
Aplochiton Zebra , Jen. Falkland Islands
Aplochiton taeniatus, Jen. Tierra del Fuego
CLUPEIDAE  
Clupea Fuegensis , Jen. Tierra del Fuego
Clupea arcuata , Jen. Bahia Blanca
Clupea sagax, Jen. Lima
Alosa pectinata , Jen. North Patagonia
Engraulis ringens, Jen. Coast of Peru
PLEURONECTIDAE  
Platessa Orbignyana, Val.? Bahia Blanca
Platessa Orbignyana? King George's Sound
Hippoglossus Kingii, Jen. Valparaiso
Rhombus Kingii? Bahia Blanca
Achirus lineatus, D'Orb. Coast of Brazil
Plagusia lineatus? Coast of Patagonia
CYCLOPTERIDAE  
Gobiesox marmoratus , Jen. Archipelago of Chiloe
Gobiesox poecilophtalmos , Jen. Galapagos
ECHENEIDIDAE  
Echeneis Remora , Linn. Atlantic Ocean
ANGUILLIDAE  
Anguilla australis, Richards  
Conger punctus , Jen. Tierra del Fuego
Muraena lentiginosa, Jen. Galapagos
Muraena ocellata, Agass. Rio de Janeiro
Muraena ocellata? Cape Verde Islands
Muraena ocellata? Tahiti

 

LOPHOBRANCHII

SYNGNATHIDAE  
Syngnathus acicularis , Jen. Valparaiso
Syngnathus conspicillatus, Jen. Tahiti
Syngnathus crinitus, Jen. Bahia Blanca

 

PLECTOGNATHI

TETRODONTIDAE  
Diodon nycthemerus, Cuv.  
Diodon rivulatus , Cuv. Maldonado
Diodon antennatus, Cuv.? Bahia Blanca
Tetrodon aerostaticus, Jen.  
Tetrodon implutus , Jen. Keeling Islands
Tetrodon annulatus, Jen. Galapagos
Tetrodon angusticeps, Jen. Galapagos
BALISTIDAE  
Balistes Vetula , Bl. South Atlantic Ocean
Balistes aculeatus, Bl. Tahiti
Aleuteres maculosus , Richards King George's Sound
Aleuteres velutinus, Jen. King George's Sound
Ostracion punctatus , Schn. Tahiti

CYCLOSTOMI

PETROMYZONIDAE  
Myxine australis, Jen. Tierra del Fuego

 

xx


LIST OF PLATESa

I   Perca laevis Facing page xviii
II   Serranus albo-maculatus 5
III   Serranus labriformis 8
IV   Serranus olfax 11
V   Pinguipes fasciatus 20
VI   Prionotus Miles 29
VII  

1. Aspidophorus Chiloensis, 1a. Aspidophorus Chiloensis, dorsal view,
1b. Aspidophorus Chiloensis, side view,
2. Agriopus hispidus, 2a. Agriopus hispidus, 2b. Agriopus hispidu

30
VIII   Scorpaena Histrio 37
IX   1. Prionodes fasciatus 2. Stegastes imbricatus 48
X   Pristipoma cantharinum 51
XI   Latilus princeps 54
XII   Chrysophrys taurina 57
XIII   Paropsis signata 66
XIV   Caranx declivis 69
XV   Caranx torvus 70
XVI   1. Atherina microlepidota, 1a, 1b. Atherina microlepidota, magnified scales, 2. Atherina incisa, 2a. Atherina incisa, magnified scale,
2b. Antherina incisa
79
XVII   1. Blennechis fasciatus, 1a. Blennechis fasciatus, teeth magnified,
2. Blennechis ornatus, 3. Salarias vomerinus
84
XVIII   1. Clinus crinitus, 2. Acanthoclinus fuscus 91
XIX   1. Tripterygion Capito, 2. Gobius lineatus, 2a. Gobius lineatus, dorsal view, 3. Gobius ophicephalus, 3a. Gobius ophicephalus, dorsal view 94
XX   Cossyphus Darwinii 103
XXI   Scarus chlorodon 106
XXII   Poecilia decem-maculata, 1a. Poecilia decem-maculata,
2. Lebias lineata, 2a. Lebias lineata, teeth, magnified,
3. Lebias multidentata, 3a. Lebias multidentata, teeth, magnified,
4. Mesites maculatus, 5. Mesites attenuatus
117
XXIII   1. Tetragonopterus Abramis, 1a. Tetrgonopterus Abramis, mouth magnified, to show form of maxillary, 2. Tetrgonopterus rutilus,
2a. Tetrgonopterus rutilus, mouth, magnified, 3. Tetrgonopterus scabripinnis, 3a. Tetrgonopterus scabripinnis, mouth, magnified,
4. Tetrgonopterus interruptus, 4a. Tetrgonopterus interruptus, mouth, magnified
124
XXIV   1. Aplochiton Zebra, 1a. Aplochiton Zebra, magnified view of anal and generative orifices, 2. Aplochiton taeniatus 133
XXV   Alosa pectinata; a. Alosa pectinata magnified scale from nape 136
XXVI   Hippoglossus Kingii 139
XXVII   1. Gobiesox marmoratus, 1a. Gobiesox marmoratus, dorsal view, 1b. Gobiesox marmoratus, underside view, 2. Gobiesox poecilophthalmos, 2a. Gobiesox poecilophthalmos, lateral view, 2b. Gobiesox poecilophthalmos, magnified view of teeth, 3. Syngnathus acicularis, 4. Syngnathus conspicillatus, 5. Syngnathus crinitus 140
XXVIII   Tetrodon angusticeps, a. Tetrodon angusticeps, dorsal view of head 155
XXIX   1. Aphritis undulatus, 2. Iluocoetes fimbriatus, 2a. Iluocoetes fimbriatus, magnified view of teeth, 3. Phucocoetes latitans, 3a. Phucocoetes latitans, magnified view of teeth 160
       

 

a The original plates are all signed by B. Waterhouse Hawkins. They are not to scale in this online edition

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