THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S. BEAGLE,
UNDER THE COMMAND OF CAPTAIN FITZROY, R.N.
DURING THE YEARS
1832 TO 1836
PUBLISHED WITH THE APPROVAL OF
THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF HER MAJESTY TREASURY
Edited and Superintendend by
CHARLES DARWN, ESQ. M.A. F.R.S. F.G.S. eRC.
NATURALIST TO THE EXPEDITION.
F I S H,
THE REV. LEONARD JENYNS, M.A., F.L.S., &c.
PUBLISHED BY SMITH,ELDER, AND CO. 65, CORNHILL
Foreword to the Online Edition of Jenyns’ Fish
The interest that Charles Darwin (CD) had in corals, barnacles, earthworms, and orchids is well documented and, indeed, his work led to monographs now essential to the biologists working on these groups.
Not so for fishes: although he was interested in this group, as attested by numerous observations scattered throughout his published work, and his notebooks and correspondence, CD never authored any book or paper devoted solely, or even mainly to fishes. Thus, ichthyologists and Darwin scholars interested in CD’s treatment of this most speciose group among the vertebrates until now had to contend themselves with Fish, which describes the fishes collected by CD during the voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836), but which was edited, rather than authored by CD.
The publication of my book on Darwin’s Fishes, which assembles and comments on all that CD wrote on fish, establish that CD contributed substantially to ichthyology. If successful, Darwin’s Fishes should heighten interest in Fish, and in the Reverend Leonard Jenyns, its author. Hence this online edition.
CD’s input into Fish was substantial: he sampled all the fish reported upon by Jenyns, who also had access to all of his field notes (notably on live colors and sampling sites). Further, it is CD who “superintendented” the publication of Fish, as amply documented in his correspondence. Still it is Jenyns who identified and/or named CD’s specimens and we shall briefly meet the man before we discuss his work.
Leonard Jenyns was born in London in 1800, the son of George Leonard Jenyns, vicar of Swaffham Prior, Cambridgeshire. In 1828, he became vicar of Swaffham Bulbeck, also in Cambridgeshire. By the mid 1830s, a substantial publication record had established his reputation as a naturalist, one of two reasons why CD invited him, in 1836, to document the collection of fish he had assembled during the voyage of the Beagle. The second reason was friendship: Jenyns’ sister Harriet had married, in 1823, J.S. Henslow, CD’s mentor and friend, and this had provided, long before CD went on the Beagle, numerous opportunities for CD and Jenyns to meet, and to gradually appreciate each other.
However, CD’s relationship with Jenyn’s was strained at first, CD finding Jenyns “selfish and illiberal”- apparently because he had refused to exchange some of his specimens with the youthful Darwin, then engrossed in collecting insects. CD then competed with Jenyns (“I think I beat Jenyns at Colymbetes” [...] “I am glad of it if it is merely to spite Mr Jenyns”). Finally, things settled and CD could report to his cousin William Darwin Fox: “I have seen lots of him lately, & the more I see the more I like him.” (The quotes are from CD’s correspondence, and are fully documented in Darwin’s Fishes.)
In 1849, Jenyns moved to the Isle of Wright, then, shortly thereafter to Swainswick, near Bath, where he founded the Bath Natural History Society. He remained very active, his publications reflecting wide-ranging interests, all much appreciated by CD. In 1887, he published an autobiography (reprinted in 1889), and passed away in 1893.
Returning to Fish, we should note that the first edition was published in four parts, over a period of 27 months, a fact of great importance to taxonomists. The full reference is thus as follows:
Jenyns, L. 1840-42. Part IV Fish In: The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, during the years 1832 to 1836. Edited and superintendented by Charles Darwin. Smith, Elder and Co. Cronhill, London (in 4 parts): i-xvi + 1-172 p. Plates 1-29 [p. 1-32: Jan. 1840; p. 33-64: June 1840; p. 65-96: April 1841; p. 97-172: April 1842].
Fish is still in print, in two editions:
Also, Fish is included on Pete Goldie’s Darwin CD-ROM (2nd edition; Lightbinders Inc., San Francisco, 1997), based on electronic files I supplied, and which were also used for this online edition.
The species listed in Jenyns’ Fish represent the bulk of what I call ‘Darwin’s fishes’, consisting of the species which CD collected during the voyage of the Beagle, and which Jenyns described, the species which CD wrote about, either in his formal publications, or in his notebooks, letters or marginalia, and all eponymous fish species, i.e., named after CD. All of these species are presented, with updated names where necessary, in Darwin’s Fishes.
This online edition of Jenyns’ Fish also provided opportunities for some updating. This was done by linking his species names with the now valid names of these species in FishBase, and correspondingly for families (note that many of Jenyns’ assignments to families have changed, even when the species names have not). As well, Jenyns’ sometimes obscure citations to the literature are all expanded upon, and where available, linked to sites from which the reference in question can be downloaded.
Finally, I take this opportunity for thanking Ms Sandra Gayosa for creating, in 1994, the file used for this online edition of Fish, Ms Yvette Rizzo for the links to FishBase, Dr. M.L. ‘Deng’ Palomares for expanding and linking the references, and Ms Cindy Young for creating the site where Fish is presented.
The number of species of Fish described or noticed in the following Part of the Zoology of the Beagle, amount to 137. It is right to observe that, judging from Mr. Darwin's manuscript notes, relating to what he obtained in this department, this is probably not more than half the entire number which he collected. Unfortunately a large portion of the valuable collection sent home by him arrived in this country in too bad condition for examination, and was necessarily rejected.
The localities visited by Mr. Darwin, and at every one of which more or fewer species of fish were obtained, were the Cape Verde Islands - the coast of Brazil, including the mouth of the Plata, together with several inland rivers and streams in that district - the coasts of Patagonia, and the Santa Cruz river - Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands - the Archipelago of Chiloe - the coasts of Chile and Peru - the Galapagos Archipelago Tahiti - New Zealand, King George's Sound in Australia - and, lastly, the Keeling Islands in the Indian Ocean. The great bulk of the species, however, are from the coasts, east and west, of South America.
The particular locality assigned to each species respectively in the following work may be relied upon as correct; pains having been taken by Mr. Darwin to affix a small ticket of tin, with a number stamped upon it, to each specimen, and to enter a note immediately in the manuscript catalogue, having the small number attached. In only three or four instances these tickets were found wanting, on the arrival of the collection in this country.
A considerable portion of the species examined and described are new to science, especially of those collected in South America, and the adjoining Islands and Archipelagos. The new ones are supposed to amount to seventy-five at least, constituting more than half the entire number; and amongst these are apparently seven new genera.
It may be interesting to state more particularly from what localities the new species principally come, and what proportion they bear to the entire number brought from each of those localities. Thus from Brazil about half are considered new; from Patagonia at least half; from Tierra del Fuego, the Falkland Islands, and the Galapagos Archipelago, all are new, without exception; and nearly all from Chiloe, and the coasts of Chile and Peru. Of the species brought from Tahiti, New Holland, and the Indian Ocean, not above one-fourth are new. This might have been anticipated from the better knowledge which we have of the Ichthyology of that quarter of the globe, than of South America.
It is much to be regretted that the portion of the collection which has been lost to science, was obtained in localities most abounding in novelties, judging from that portion of it which has been saved. Thus, not above five or six species will be found noticed in the following work, from Tierra del Fuego, where Mr. Darwin took especial pains to collect all he could, and, judging from his manuscript catalogue, he must probably have obtained between thirty and forty. From the Falkland Islands again, there have been only saved two out of fifteen or sixteen - from the coasts of Chile and Peru, not half the entire number obtained, and not above half from the coasts of Patagonia.
There is also described not above half the species brought from King George's Sound, and the Keeling Islands; but as the Indian and Australian species, or at least the former, have been more frequently brought to Europe than the South American, they are less to be regretted than these last.
It is unfortunate that the whole of the species obtained by Mr. Darwin in the Galapagos Archipelago, amounting to fifteen, have been preserved, and are described in the following pages.
It may now be useful to mention, to what groups principally - first, the entire number of described species belong, and, secondly, that portion of them which are considered new. Both these points will be best judged of from the following table, in which the whole collection is parceled out according to the families.
|Percidae. Entire No. of species||18||whereof new||11||Brought up||45||22|
|Siluridae. Entire No. of species||3||whereof new||2||Brought up||30||21|
|Syngnathidae. Entire No. of species||7||whereof new||3|
|Tetrodontidae. Entire No. of species||7||whereof new||4|
|Petromyzonidae. Entire No. of species||1||whereof new||1|
|TOTAL IN THE SEVERAL ORDERS|
|Acanthopterygii. Entire No. of species||82||whereof new||41|
|Grand total||137||Grand total, new||75|
It appears from the above table that of the entire number of species, three-fifths belong to the Acanthopterygian fishes - rather more than one-fourth tot he Malacopterygian- and about one-eight to the remaining orders united.
In the Acanthopterygians, the new species amount to one-half; in the Malacopterygians, to about two-thirds; in the remainig orders together, to rather more than one-half.
Looking, therefore, to the entire number of species described, the Acanthopterygians prevail; and it is in the same order that there are most new ones: but looking to the proportion, which in each order the new ones bear to the entire number, it is among the Malacopterygians that this proportion will be found highest.
Restricting our view, it will also be seen, in the Malacopterygians, that the new species are relatively most numerous in the fresh-water groups, such as the Siluridae, the Cyprinidae, and Salmonidae, in which three families taken together, they amount to five sixths of the whole. The Clupeidae are an exception, in which all the species are apparently new.
All the species described, belonging to the three families above mentioned, in which thre are so many new, viz. the Siluridae , the Cyprinidae , and Salmonidae , are from South America, and the Falkland Islands, excepting one from New Zealand.
Of the remaining fresh-water species in the collection, three out of five are presumed to be new. One of these is a species of Perca , from the Santa Cruz river, in South Patagonia; the second is a species of Dules, from the river Matavai, in Tahiti; the third is a species of Atherina , from Valparaiso. Perhaps, however, however, this last is not strictly an inland species.
The entire number of fresh-water species in the collection is twenty-three, and the entire number of new ones amongst these is eighteen. The large proportion of these latter is a circumstance in confirmation of a remark which Cuvier has somewhere made, that the fresh-water fishes of foreign countries are much less known and understood than those found in the coasts. It may serve also as a hint to future travellers.
The seven new genera in the collection belong - one to the Sciaenidae, from the Galapagos Archipelago; one to the Scombridae, from North Patagonia; three to the Blennidae, whereof one is from the Archipelago of Chiloe, the second from the Falkland Islands, and the third from New Zealand; one to the Cyprinidae, embracing three species, from South Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, and New Zealand; and, lastly, one to the Salmonidae, embracing two species from the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego respectively.
It has been already mentioned, that all the species obtained by Mr. Darwin in the Galapagos Archipelago have been preserved. As they are likewise all new, and those islands appear to have been scarcely visited by any naturalist previously, it may be interesting to enumerate the several genera to which they belong, and the number of species in each genus respectively.
In making the foregoing estimates, as regards the number of new species brought home by Mr. Darwin, I have been guided almost entirely by my own judgment. The difficulty, however, of ascertaining, in a miscellaneous collection of this nature, brought from various localities, what are really new to science, is very great; and this difficulty is much increased, where an author is situate apart from large public museums to which he might have recourse for comparison. Possibly, therefore, some of those described as new in the following work, may not be so in reality; and, in one instance, as mentioned in the Appendix, this is known to be the case. My excuse, however, must rest upon what has been stated. It is hoped that caution has been generally shown, at least in regard to specimens not in a good state of preservation; and, in several such cases, in which an accurate description was hardly practicable - though they could not be referred to any known species - they are not positively declared new, nor any names imposed upon them whatever.
I have, of course, consulted throughout the invaluable volumes of Cuvier and Valencinnes, so far as they have yet advanced in the subject; and in them it will be found that a few species, brought by Mr. Darwin from South America, and still but little known, had nevertheless been previously obtained from the same country by M. Gay. The zoological atlasses of the three great French voyages by Freycinet , Duperrey and D'Urville have been also carefully looked through; and, in regard particularly to the fish of South America, the works of Humboldt , Spix and Agassiz , and the more recent one, now in course of publication, by M. D'Orbigny.
There is an equal difficulty felt by every naturalist at the present day, in distinguishing species from varieties. And in the case of Fish, residing in a peculiar element, and so much removed from our observation - we are almost at a loss to know, at present, to what extent their characters may be modified by local and accidental causes, or how far we may trust a different geographical position for giving permanence and value to a slight modification of form different from what occurs in the species of our own seas. Still less easy is it to determine the true importance of characters, in instances in which it is only permitted to see a single specimen of the kind, or, at most, very few individuals.
Many mistakes, therefore, are liable to occur, in a work of this nature, arising from the above sources. The only way to prevent their creating any permanent confusion in the science, is to describe all species of which the least doubt is entertained, in such detail, and with such accuracy, that they may not fail of being recognized by any observer, to whom they may occur a second time. They will not then continue to hold a false position in the system, as spurious species. They may not be new, or they may not be species at all - but they will be known; and any mistake which has been committed will be at once rectified - any new name which has been wrongly imposed, immediately degraded to a synonym.
Accordingly I have been careful in this respect; and I have in some instances, given full descriptions, even of species which are certainly not new, but which I did not find described by previous authors with all the detail that was requisite for completely identifying them; or, leaving out what they have noticed, I have added such characters as they have omitted. My main object has been to render all the species, whether rightly named or not, easily recognizable; and, however little the science may be advanced by what is brought forward, to make that advance, so far as it goes, sure.
The method of description, and the model of computing the fin-ray formula, will be found conformable to the plan adopted in the Histoire des Poissons of Cuvier and Valenciennes; a work which, in so many respects, must always serve as a model to labourers in this department of zoology.
The colours, in the great majority of instances, were, fortunately, noticed by Mr. Darwin in the recent state. The nomenclature employed by him for the purpose is that of Patrick Syme; and he informs me, that a comparison was always made with the book in hand, previous to the exact colour in any case being noted. Where I have observed any markings left unnoticed by Mr. Darwin, I have added them myself; and, in most instances, I have given the general disposition of the colours as they appear in spirits, from the circumstance of their being often so much altered by the liquor, and liable to mislead those, who have only the opportunity of seeing them in preserved specimens. This is what Cuvier and Valenciennes have frequently done in their work; and from them I have borrowed the practice.
In a work of this nature, it has not been thought desirable to enter into any discussion of the principles of scientific arrangement, or to effect any change in systems already received, I have taken the groups almost exactly as they stand in the Histoire des Poissons of Cuvier and Valenciennes, or in the Regne Animal of the former; yet there is reason to believe that many parts of their system will be found hereafter to require some modification, especially in regard to families and genera which have for their distinctive character the presence or absence of vomerine or palatine teeth. The small value which is to be attached to such character is pointed out in some instances in the following work, and much dwelt upon.
In conclusion, it may be stated, that the whole of the species in the collection of fish brought home by Mr. Darwin, described in the following pages, have been deposited by him in the Museum of the Philosophical Society of Cambridge. They are mostly in spirit, and, generally speaking, in a good state of preservation; some few, however, are in the state of skins only, and have been mounted.
8 January, 1842
SYSTEMATIC TABLE OF SPECIES
WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE HABITATS
|Perca laevis , Jen.||South Patagonia|
|Serranus albo-maculatus, Jen.||Galapagos Archipelago|
|Serranus Goreenis, Val.?||Cape Verde Islands|
|Serranus aspersus, Jen.||Cape Verde Islands|
|Serranus labriformis , Jen.||Galapagos|
|Serranus olfax , Jen.||Galapagos|
|Plectropoma Patachonica , Jen.||North Patagonia|
|Diacope marginata, Cuv.||Keeling Islands|
|Aplodactylus punctatus, Val.|
|Dules Auriga , Cuv. et Val.||Maldonado|
|Dules Leuciscus , Jen.||Tahiti|
|Helotes octolineatus , Jen.||King George's Sound|
|Aphritis undulatus , Jen.||Archipelago of Chiloe|
|Aphritis porosus, Jen.||Central Patagonia|
|Pinguipes fasciatus, Jen.||North Patagonia|
|Pinguipes Chilensis, Val.||Valparaiso|
|Percophis Brasilianus, Cuv.||North Patagonia|
|Upeneus flavo-lineatus, Cuv. et Val.||Keeling Islands|
|Upeneus trifasciatus , Cuv.||Tahiti|
|Upeneus Prayensis , Cuv. et Val.?||Cape Verde Islands|
|Trigla Kumu , Less. et Garn.||New Zealand|
|Prionotus punctatus , Cuv.||Rio de Janeiro|
|Prionotus Miles , Jen.||Galapagos|
|Aspidophorus Chiloensis, Jen.||Chiloe|
|Platycephalus inops, Jen.||King George's Sound|
|Scorpaena Histrio , Jen.||Galapagos|
|Sebastes oculata, Val.?||Valaparaiso|
|Agriopus hispidus, Jen.||Archipelago of Chiloe|
|Apistus hispidus?||King George's Sound|
|Otolithus Guatucupa , Cuv. et Val.||Maldonado|
|Otolithus analis , Jen.||Coast of Peru|
|Corvina adusta , Agass.||Maldonado|
|Umbrina arenata , Cuv. et Val.||North Patagonia|
|Umbrina ophicephala, Jen.||Coquimbo|
|Prionodes fasciatus, Jen.||Galapagos|
|Pristipoma cantharinum, Jen||Galapagos|
|Latilus jugularis, Val.||Valparaiso|
|Latilus princeps , Val.||Galapagos|
|Heliases Crusma , Val.||Valparaiso|
|Chrysophrys taurina, Jen.||Galapagos|
|Gerres Gula , Cuv. et Val.?||Rio de Janeiro|
|Gerres Oyena , Cuv. et Val.?||Keeling Islands|
|Chaetodon setifer , Bl.||Keeling Islands|
|Stegastes imbricatus , Jen.||Cape Verde Islands|
|Paropsis signata, Jen.||North Patagonia|
|Caranx declivis, Jen.||King George's Sound|
|Caranx torvus , Jen.||Tahiti|
|Caranx Georgianus, Cuv. et Val.||King George's Sound|
|Seriola bipinnulata, Quoy et Gaim.||Keeling Islands|
|Psenes bipinnulata?||South Atlantic Ocean|
|Stromateus maculatus , Cuv. et Val.||Chiloe|
|Acanthurus triostegus , Bl. Schn.||Keeling Islands|
|Acanthurus humeralis , Cuv. et Val.||Tahiti|
|Atherina argentinensis, Cuv. et Val.?||Maldonado|
|Atherina microlepidota, Jen.||Valparaiso|
|Atherina incisa , Jen.||North Patagonia|
|Mugil Liza , Cuv. et Val.||North Patagonia|
|Mugil Liza?||Keeling Islands|
|Dajaus Diemensis, Richards||King George's Island|
|Blennius palmicornis, Cuv. et Val.||Cape Verde Islands|
|Blennius fasciatus, Jen.||Concepcion|
|Blennechis ornatus, Jen.||Coquimbo|
|Salarias atlanticus , Cuv. et Val.||Cape Verde Islands|
|Salarias quadricornis , Cuv. et Val.?||Keeling Islands|
|Salarias vomerinus , Cuv. et Val.?||Cape Verde Islands|
|Clinus crinitus , Jen.||Coquimbo|
|Acanthoclinus fuscus, Jen.||New Zealand|
|Tripterygion Capito, Jen.||New Zealand|
|Iluocoetes fimbriatus, Jen.||Archipelago of Chiloe|
|Phucocoetes latitans, Jen.||Falkland Islands|
|Gobius lineatus , Jen.||Galapagos|
|Gobius ophicephalus, Jen.||Archipelago of Chiloe|
|Eleotris Gobiodes , Val.||New Zealand|
|Batrachus porosissimus , Cuv. et Val.?||Bahia Blanca|
|Cossyphus Darwinii, Jen.||Galapagos|
|Cheilio ramosus, Jen.||Japan?|
|Chromis facetus , Jen.||Maldonado|
|Scarus chlorodon, Jen.||Keeling Islands|
|Scarus globiceps, Cuv. et Val.||Tahiti|
|Scarus lepidus , Jen.||Tahiti|
|Scarus lepidus?||Keeling Islands|
|Pimelodus gracilis , Val.?||Rio de Janeiro|
|Pimelodus exsudans, Jen.||Rio de Janeiro?|
|Callichthys paleatus , Jen.|
|Poecilia unimaculata, Val.||Rio de Janeiro|
|Poecilia decem-maculata , Jen||Maldonado|
|Lebias lineata , Jen.||Maldonado|
|Lebias multidentata, Jen.||Monte Video|
|Mesites maculatus , Jen.||South Patagonia|
|Mesites alpinus , Jen.||Tierra del Fuego|
|Mesites attenuatus, Jen.||New Zealand|
|Exocoetus exsiliens , Bl.?||Pacific Ocean|
|Tetragonopterus Abramis, Jen.||Rio Parana, S. America|
|Tetragonopterus rutilus, Jen.||Rio Parana, S. America|
|Tetragonopterus scabripinnis, Jen.||Rio de Janeiro|
|Tetragonopterus taeniatus, Jen.||Rio de Janeiro|
|Tetragonopterus interruptus, Jen.||Maldonado|
|Hydrocyon Hepsetus, Cuv.||Maldonado|
|Aplochiton Zebra , Jen.||Falkland Islands|
|Aplochiton taeniatus, Jen.||Tierra del Fuego|
|Clupea Fuegensis , Jen.||Tierra del Fuego|
|Clupea arcuata , Jen.||Bahia Blanca|
|Clupea sagax, Jen.||Lima|
|Alosa pectinata , Jen.||North Patagonia|
|Engraulis ringens, Jen.||Coast of Peru|
|Platessa Orbignyana, Val.?||Bahia Blanca|
|Platessa Orbignyana?||King George's Sound|
|Hippoglossus Kingii, Jen.||Valparaiso|
|Rhombus Kingii?||Bahia Blanca|
|Achirus lineatus, D'Orb.||Coast of Brazil|
|Plagusia lineatus?||Coast of Patagonia|
|Gobiesox marmoratus , Jen.||Archipelago of Chiloe|
|Gobiesox poecilophtalmos , Jen.||Galapagos|
|Echeneis Remora , Linn.||Atlantic Ocean|
|Anguilla australis, Richards|
|Conger punctus , Jen.||Tierra del Fuego|
|Muraena lentiginosa, Jen.||Galapagos|
|Muraena ocellata, Agass.||Rio de Janeiro|
|Muraena ocellata?||Cape Verde Islands|
|Syngnathus acicularis , Jen.||Valparaiso|
|Syngnathus conspicillatus, Jen.||Tahiti|
|Syngnathus crinitus, Jen.||Bahia Blanca|
|Diodon nycthemerus, Cuv.|
|Diodon rivulatus , Cuv.||Maldonado|
|Diodon antennatus, Cuv.?||Bahia Blanca|
|Tetrodon aerostaticus, Jen.|
|Tetrodon implutus , Jen.||Keeling Islands|
|Tetrodon annulatus, Jen.||Galapagos|
|Tetrodon angusticeps, Jen.||Galapagos|
|Balistes Vetula , Bl.||South Atlantic Ocean|
|Balistes aculeatus, Bl.||Tahiti|
|Aleuteres maculosus , Richards||King George's Sound|
|Aleuteres velutinus, Jen.||King George's Sound|
|Ostracion punctatus , Schn.||Tahiti|
|Myxine australis, Jen.||Tierra del Fuego|
LIST OF PLATESa
|I||Perca laevis||Facing page xviii|
|IX||1. Prionodes fasciatus 2. Stegastes imbricatus||48|
|XVI||1. Atherina microlepidota, 1a,
1b. Atherina microlepidota, magnified scales, 2. Atherina incisa,
2a. Atherina incisa, magnified scale,
2b. Antherina incisa
|XVII||1. Blennechis fasciatus, 1a. Blennechis
fasciatus, teeth magnified,
2. Blennechis ornatus, 3. Salarias vomerinus
|XVIII||1. Clinus crinitus, 2. Acanthoclinus fuscus||91|
|XIX||1. Tripterygion Capito, 2. Gobius lineatus, 2a. Gobius lineatus, dorsal view, 3. Gobius ophicephalus, 3a. Gobius ophicephalus, dorsal view||94|
1a. Poecilia decem-maculata,
2. Lebias lineata, 2a. Lebias lineata, teeth, magnified,
3. Lebias multidentata, 3a. Lebias multidentata, teeth, magnified,
4. Mesites maculatus, 5. Mesites attenuatus
|XXIII||1. Tetragonopterus Abramis, 1a.
Tetrgonopterus Abramis, mouth magnified, to show form of maxillary,
2. Tetrgonopterus rutilus,
2a. Tetrgonopterus rutilus, mouth, magnified, 3. Tetrgonopterus scabripinnis, 3a. Tetrgonopterus scabripinnis, mouth, magnified,
4. Tetrgonopterus interruptus, 4a. Tetrgonopterus interruptus, mouth, magnified
|XXIV||1. Aplochiton Zebra, 1a. Aplochiton Zebra, magnified view of anal and generative orifices, 2. Aplochiton taeniatus||133|
|XXV||Alosa pectinata; a. Alosa pectinata magnified scale from nape||136|
|XXVII||1. Gobiesox marmoratus, 1a. Gobiesox marmoratus, dorsal view, 1b. Gobiesox marmoratus, underside view, 2. Gobiesox poecilophthalmos, 2a. Gobiesox poecilophthalmos, lateral view, 2b. Gobiesox poecilophthalmos, magnified view of teeth, 3. Syngnathus acicularis, 4. Syngnathus conspicillatus, 5. Syngnathus crinitus||140|
|XXVIII||Tetrodon angusticeps, a. Tetrodon angusticeps, dorsal view of head||155|
|XXIX||1. Aphritis undulatus, 2. Iluocoetes fimbriatus, 2a. Iluocoetes fimbriatus, magnified view of teeth, 3. Phucocoetes latitans, 3a. Phucocoetes latitans, magnified view of teeth||160|
a The original plates are all signed by B. Waterhouse Hawkins. They are not to scale in this online edition